Sexism and the Contribution of Confucianism to China

Topics: Gender, Gender role, Woman Pages: 7 (2199 words) Published: April 2, 2013
I. Introduction
A. Background
The contribution to the idea of sexism manifested through belief of Confucianism and aids the identification of the controversial need to identify gender roles and the Chinese perspective of women's rights in modern China. II. Identification of Gender Roles

 A. Taboo
            1.Assignment of a Functional Role
            2.Allocation of Roles
B. Why a Woman Can't Be More Like a Man?
            1. Vive la Différence
 III. The Contribution of Confucianism to the Idea of Sexism           
 A. Confucian Women
            1.Deification of Reproductive Power
            2.Minimizing the Rights of Women
IV. The Chinese Perspective of Women: Then and Now
A. Women of Traditional and Revolutionary China
            1.Management of Social Ideals and Responsibilities             2.Contadictory Goals and Expectations            
B. Women of Modern China
            1.Economic Reforms
            2.Conform to the Ideals and the Norm of the Chinese State V. Conclusion



This paper explores many different books and articles that report on the growth of sexism within the Chinese culture and its relationship to philosophical beliefs such as Confucianism. The sources, however, vary in the views of how Chinese culture is and should be in reference to gender roles and association. This paper examines the research of the many individuals in relation gender roles, perspectives, and contributions to suggest that sexism of China should be studied in order to understand how past influences are contributing to the structure of modern China today

Sexism and the Contribution of Confucianism to China

In the article "Gender Studies" the author states, "Gender is a fundamental aspect of personal and social identity and a biological, psychological, and cultural construction of paramount importance for people everywhere"(1). Sexism has always served as a prominent barrier between sexes and also the notion that women are inferior to men. The contribution to the idea of sexism manifested through belief of Confucianism and aids the identification of the controversial need to identify gender roles and the Chinese perspective of women's rights in modern China. There have been numerous studies of the levels of intimacy, closeness, and the social responsibility of each individual based upon gender. However, compared to modern China, many aspects of the cultural beliefs have changed significantly. In order to understand how traditional, revolutionary and modern China has been affected by the philosophical idea of Confucianism, all aspects of the sex roles and perceptions should be studied. Researchers such as Marguerite Massa, Dr. Ralph Gundlach, Peter Pollack and Dr. Alan Rappaport agree that the role of women within China as well as other parts of the world have adopted many cultural ideas of sexism, but they have drawn quite different conclusions in addressing the following questions: 1. What are the implications to the identification of gender roles? 2. How did the belief of Confucianism further influence sexism in China? 3. How has the perspective of women changed?

This review of the roles, responsibilities, and functions on the basis of sexual difference will focus on these four questions. Implications to the Identification of Gender Roles
Taboo is the unnecessary unless deviant behavior exists or is real enough to be understood as a threat. Regardless of the simplicity of society, there have always been restrictions and taboos towards men and women roles. The assignment of these roles was based solely on sex.  For example in earlier times, men were expected to hunt while women were caretakers and expected to weave. Of course there were some women who preferred to hunt and men who wish to abandon hunting for weaving as well as those women wanting to pursue sexual...

References: * Croll, E. (1984). Chinese Women Since Mao (Women in the Third World). London: Zed Books Ltd.
* Croll, E. (1980). Feminism and Socialism in China.. New Haven: Rouledge & Kegan Paul.
* Douglas, M. (1984). Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London and New York: Ark.
* Elvin, M. (1973). The Pattern of the Chinese Past (1 ed.). Stanford : Stanford University Press.
* Foucault, M. (1990). The History of Sexuality: The Use of Pleasure (Vintage) Vol. 2 (Reissue ed.). New York: Vintage.
* Gilmartin, C., Hershatter, G., Rofel, L., & White, T. (2005). Engendering China: Women, Culture, and the State (Harvard Contemporary China Series). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
* Martin, E. (1978). Studies in Chinese Society (1 ed.). Stanford : Stanford University Press.
* Martin, E. (2001). The Woman in the Body: A Cultural Analysis of Reproduction (Revised ed.). Boston: Beacon Press.
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