SEX DETERMINATION IN FORENSIC ODONTOLOGY
Identification of living beings and dead bodies is of great importance in Forensic science. Sex determination is one of the important steps in establishing identity. Sex identification in international sports:
In 1932 Helen Stephens and Stella Walsh: Hitler’s Olympics In 1936 Stella accused Stephens of being male and so a crude physical examination including gross physical examination of external genitalia was done. In 1966 gender identification became compulsory in the form of gynecological examination: nude parades – Irina and Tamara Press In 1968 Olympics, barr body detection was introduced and widely proclaimed to be the solution to gender misinterpretation in sports. This was the simpler, objective and more dignified test involving the cytological analysis of the buccal smear. First detected by Murray Barr in 1948 during research on the nervous system of cats – cells were analyzed following electrical stimulation and a dark body was found in the nucleus of certain animals. This distinction was found to be related to sex & found in human autopsies as well. These nuclear findings came to be known as BARR BODY found associated with only XX sex chromosome, related to the chromatin clump which occurs due to the inactivation of the other paired sex chromosome. Ewa Klobukowska first polish sprinter to be disqualified following Barr Body examination. Created more problems than it solved. Gender identification purely via a chromosomal test failed to interpret the complexity of sex determination. Females having complete androgen insensitivity syndrome were barred because of a XY chromosome inspite of complete female phenotype whereas those with Kleinfelter’s syndrome having XXY chromosome had an unfair advantage because of their physique. In 1991, Barr Body examination replaced by PCR for the SRY locus performed on DNA obtained from buccal smears. All women were screened from 1992 Olympics onwards. None were reported as...
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