Sewage Treatment Plant

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL

Water recycling or the reuse of treated wastewater is becoming a necessity in today’s world. Under constant threat due to climate change, explosive population growth, and wastage, there is tremendous pressure on water, a basic and valuable resource. While industrial growth and unplanned water utilization for agricultural use have depleted ground water levels in many parts of India, the growth of urban clusters have brought pressure on available water. Increasing levels in sewage and industrial effluents have created the threat of pollution.

Against this context of growing concerns about water, its recycling becomes important, for beneficial purposes such as agricultural and landscape irrigation, industrial processes, reuse in housing colonies and societies, or replenishing groundwater basins (often referred as groundwater recharge). Water reuse allows communities to become less dependent on groundwater and surface water sources. Additionally, water reuse may reduce the nutrient loads from wastewater discharges into waterways. This helps in reducing pollution and preserving the resources.

In many cases the important sector of public health has been left alone when major upgrading projects improved the water supply systems in many countries and provinces. This basically ignored the downstream effect of improved water supply, that of increased discharges into rivers or aquifers. Two reasons appear to be the major cause for that: firstly, wastewater collection and treatment is costly and their benefit often hard to show; and secondly, even if low-cost solutions are being implemented many projects fail to deliver the expected outcome.

Without pretending to reflect the complexity of sanitation projects three principal reasons may be held accountable for the non-delivery problems:

• The technology was not appropriate,

• The beneficiary was not involved and consulted sufficiently, and

• The responsibilities

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