sepsis case study

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1.0 Definitions of Sepsis

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Sepsis is often referred to as either blood poisoning or septicaemia. Sepsis occurs when an infections spreads through the blood, causing symptoms to develop throughout the whole body. It is where the body’s defence mechanisms respond to an infection in some part of the body which resulting in symptoms such as fever, hypothermia, heart rate greater than 90 beats per minute, altered mental status, swelling of the extremities, and high blood glucose in diabetic patients. The criteria used to diagnose sepsis are abnormalities of body temperature, pulse, respirations, and white blood cell counts. When sepsis is associated with one or more organ dysfunctions, it is referred as severe sepsis. Organ dysfunction can be defined as acute lung injury; coagulation abnormalities; thrombocytopenia; altered mental status; renal, liver, or cardiac failure; or hypo-perfusion with lactic acidosis. Septic shock is defined as sepsis-induced hypotension with lower than 90 mm
Hg or reduction by 40 mm Hg or more from baseline in the absence of other causes, persisting despite adequate fluid resuscitation, along with signs of organ hypo-perfusion, such as lactic acidosis, oliguria, or acute alteration in mental status. The transition from sepsis to septic shock occurs most often in the first 24 hours of treatment.

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2.0 Indication to SIRS

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Sepsis can also be defined as the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) resulting from a confirmed infection. SIRS was intended to define a clinical response to a non-specific insult, either infectious or non infectious in origin, it can be incited by ischemia, inflammation and trauma, infection or a combination of several insults.
Thus, SIRS is not always associated with infection. From the case study, patient have extensive trauma from the motor vehicle accident. Traumatic injuries induce a complex host response that disrupts immune system homeostasis and



References: Azevedo, L, C, P. (2013). The may facets of sepsis pathophysiology and treatment. Shock ! Bryant, H, N., Fredrick, M, A., Gregory, J, M., Edward, A., Stephen, T., David, A, T. (2009). Bakhshi, S., Arya, L, S. (2009). Etiopathophysiology of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Carl-Erik, D. (2009). Disseminated intravascular coagulation and coagulation disorders. Dellinger, Phillip, R. (2012) Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2012 (2012). Demographic Differences In Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Score After Trauma Hossain, N., Paidas, M, J. (2013). Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation. Seminars in ! Karen, P., Aidin, M. (2012). Nursing The Acutely Ill Adult: Case book.

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