top-rated free essay

Separation of an Acid and Base

By 8bugolini Feb 07, 2012 435 Words
Extraction of R’-NH2
For both of the organic acid and organic base extraction, the addition of the respective inorganic acid or inorganic base (HCl or NaOH) to the three-component mixture caused an immiscible appearance of the solution in the separatory funnel. By briskly shaking the separatory funnel with the mixed components created a build up of pressure which was released through the stopcock forming small disappearing bubbles within the tip of the separatory funnel. Once the funnel was placed back into the iron ring and the stopper was removed, the distinct upper ether layer had an oily appearance and a visible barrier separating it from the lower water-organic base or organic acid layer. After pouring out the ether layer into a beaker and adding anhydrous sodium sulfate, all that remained in the funnel was the neutral extract.

The preliminary steps in the isolation of the organic acid and organic base required volumes of approximately 10 mL and 8mL respectively of the inorganic acid or base (HCl or NaOH) in order to initiate the cloudy appearance in solution. Vacuum filtration of the NaOH extract (organic acid) produced a shiny white crystalline product collected in the filter paper. Likewise, vacuum filtration of the HCl extract (organic base) produced a dull white crystalline product collected in the filter paper, which was comparable to powdered chalk. After the ether evaporated, the neutral extract remained in the bottom of the beaker and was a mixture of white and slightly tinted green and yellow crystalline product.

Sources of Error

In every scientific experiment there is bound to be experimental error present and this should undoubtedly be accounted for in the analysis of the experiment. A source of error that was unavoidable in this experiment was due to the inability to transfer the entire quantity of recrystallized product from the filter paper to the watch glass. Further experimental error was that some of the water layer containing either the organic base or acid, as a salt, might not have been extracted into the collecting flask. Even though two extractions were performed per substance to be extracted, it was possible that the water layer was not entirely removed, therefore leaving behind some components of the mixture to mix with the ether layer. This could have resulted in a reduction in the purity of the recrystallized products ultimately affecting the melting point of that recrystallized product. Finally, an error due to contamination and poor clean up by a previous group could have resulted in other substances mixing with the organic and inorganic substances that were used in our experiment.

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Acids and Bases

    ...Group 9 September 26, 2012 Members: Cabatic, Sophia Mae E. October 1, 2012 Peria, Ellen Faith L. Tacula, Jassy Camille D.S. Activity 11 Acids and Bases I. Objectives * To identify some acids and some bases which are used in common household products. * To construct an o...

    Read More
  • Acid and base

    ...Solutions to Test Lemon Juice Vinegar Soda Milk Pure Water Bleach Introduction It all has to do with hydrogen ions. In water a small number of the molecules dissociate. Some of the water molecules lose a hydrogen and become hydroxyl ions. The "lost" hydrogen ions join up with water molecules to form hydronium ions. For si...

    Read More
  • Acid and Base

    ...Experiment 4: ACIDS AND BASES: PH Measurements and Macroscale Titration CHM023L – A12 Group no. 6 Members: | Contributions: | | Conclusion | | Recommendation | | Tables and figures with analysis | | Principles, Equation | | Abstract, tables | Date Performed: February 28, 2012 - Tuesday Date Submitted: March 6, 2012 ...

    Read More
  • Acids and Bases

    ...ACIDS AND BASES The reason that acid-base reactions are so important is that many of the things you come into contact with on a daily basis are either acids or bases. Most fruits are acids, as are carbonated beverages, tea, and battery acid. Common household bases include baking soda, ammonia, soap, and antacids. What are acids and bases? ...

    Read More
  • Acids and Bases

    ... * Acid 2. Base 3. Neutral INDICATORS This is a substance which is one color in and acid and another color in a base. Indicators can ten be used to test for the presence of acids or bases in a substance. Some are available in paper form (litmus) and others in liquid form (methyl orange). ...

    Read More
  • Acid Base

    ...Trial | 1 | 2 | 3 | Final Reading HCl (ml) | 35 | 35 | 35 | Initial Reading HCl (ml) | 0 | 0 | 0 | Volume HCl used (ml) | 35 | 35 | 35 | | | | | Final Reading NaOH (ml) | 30.6 | 30.2 | 30.0 | Initial Reading NaOH (ml) | 0 | 0 | 0 | Volume NaOH used (ml) | 30.6 | 30.2 | 30.0 | | | | | Acid to Base Ratio | 0.87 | 0.86 ...

    Read More
  • Acids and Bases

    ...and Determination of Unknown Acid KEYWORDS: quantitative analysis, titration, buret, endpoint, standardization, half-equivalence point, calorimetric titration, potentiometric titration ABSTRACT: The concentration of sodium hydroxide was determined by colorimetric titration, and the identity of an unknown acid was determined by potentiome...

    Read More
  • Acid Base Equilibria and Solubility Equ

    ...August 28, 2009 [PROBLEM SET FROM R. CHANG TEST BANK] Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Student: ___________________________________________________________________________ NOTE: A table of ionization constants and Ka's is required to work some of the problems in this chapter. 1. In which one of the following solutions ...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.