Semantic and phonetic interference in memory recall
This study examined retroactive semantic and phonetic interference in memory recall. Participants were shown either a target list, a target list following a non-target list of semantic words or a target list following a non-target list of phonetic words. They were then asked to recall only the list with the results showing a significant difference between the effect of semantic and phonetic interference during the memory recall. Additionally, a significant difference was visible between all three conditions, with the semantic and phonetic conditions scoring a lower recall level in comparison to the controlled condition. Introduction
The active difference between short-term memory and long-term memory is anything but exact. Although, there is an understanding that long-term memory is being examined when a list is displayed several occasions over an interval of time calculated in minutes and recalling is measured after minutes, hours and days, and short-term memory is being examined when a list is displayed once and at a rate of fewer than 30 seconds. Within cognition a key question is whether information is forgotten due to a function of time. A strong amount of research proposes that information is not forgotten due to time, but as a result of interference (see, e.g., Lovatt, Ayons, & Masterson, 2002; Neath & Surprenant, 2003; Oberauer & Kliegl, 2006). However, many academics have thought that unrehearsed information is forgotten over several seconds (e.g., Baddeley, 1986; Towse, Hitch, & Hutton, 2000), since supported theories (e.g., Baddeley & Scott, 1971; Cowan, Nugent, Elliot, & Geer, 2000; Mueller, Seymour, Kieras, & Meyer, 2003). The matter continues to be uncertain. Our skill to selectively remember earlier information is a vital aspect of our long-term memory system. Prior research proposed that in many circumstances individuals have the ability of selectively seeking information in memory, preceding to their subsequent remembrance. Even with research for this skill to selectively seek information from our memory, we still do not have much information on how we actually achieve this complex task. Abel and Bauml’s (2013) research focuses on participants revising items from different categories and then continually recalling specific items from specific categories, recall rehearsal normally increases recall of the rehearsed information although impairs retrieval of associated but unrehearsed information, relative to manage information from unrehearsed categories. The results displayed the belief that memory impairment following extended intervals between practice and test and in the occurrence of retroactive interference. In opposition, both the rehearsed and the related unrehearsed information displayed barely any failure to remember under these conditions. Unsworth, Brewer and Spillers’ (2013) conflicting study observed the impact of proactive and retroactive interference on memory targeting, examining how individuals concentrate their search on a target list when accompanied by proactive or retroactive interference. Results showed that long-term memory targeting is steered by noisy temporal-contextual cues (unless other salient cues are current) that trigger equally relevant and irrelevant memoranda that are then exposed to a post recovery supervising process; these findings challenge the results from Abel and Bauml’s (2013) study. This research among other findings (see, e.g., Lovatt, Ayons, & Masterson, 2002; Neath & Surprenant, 2003; Oberauer & Kliegl, 2006; Unsworth, Brewer & Spillers’, 2013) motives the present study. This research examines not only the question of whether there will be a difference between semantic and phonetic interference during memory recall, but also if the results will show a significant difference between the retroactive interference conditions and the controlled condition. Additionally, this study has also been...
References: Abel, M., & Bäuml, K. H. T. (2013). The Role of Delay and Retroactive Interference in Retrieval-Induced Forgetting. Memory & Cognition.
Baddeley, A. D., & Dale, H. C. A. (1966). The effect of semantic similarity on retroactive interference in long-and short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 5(5), 417-420.
Baddeley, A. D. (1966). The influence of acoustic and semantic similarity on long-term memory for word sequences. The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology, 18(4), 302-309.
Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory?. Trends in cognitive sciences, 4(11), 417-423.
Baddeley, A. D., & Scott, D. (1971). Short-term forgetting in the absence of proactive inhibition. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 275-283.
Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Clarendon Press.
Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. (2005). Computational models of working memory: putting long-term memory into context. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(11), 535-541.
Burgess, N., & Hitch, G. J. (2006). A revised model of short-term memory and long-term learning of verbal sequences. Journal of Memory and Language, 55(4), 627-652.
Cowan, N., & AuBuchon, A. M. (2008). Short-term memory loss over time without retroactive stimulus interference. Psychonomic bulletin & review, 15(1), 230-235.
Cowan, N., Nugent, L. D., Elliott, E. M., & Geer, T. (2000). Is there a temporal basis of the word length effect? A response to Service (1998). Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53A, 647-660.
Eakin, D. K., & Smith, R. (2012). Retroactive interference effects in implicit memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38(5), 1419.
Lovatt, P., Avons, S. E., & Masterson, J. (2002). Output decay in immediate serial recall: Speech time revisited. Journal of Memory & Language, 46, 227-243.
Neath, I., & Surprenant, A. (2003). Human memory (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Oberauer, K., & Kliegl, R
Ranganath, C., & Blumenfeld, R. S. (2005). Doubts about double dissociations between short-and long-term memory. Trends in cognitive sciences, 9(8), 374-380.
Shiffrin, R. M. (1970a). Forgetting: Trace erosion or retrieval failure? Science, 168, 1601–1603. doi:10.1126/science.168.3939.1601
Shiffrin, R. M., & Atkinson, R. C. (1969). Storage and retrieval processes in long-term memory. Psychological Review, 79, 179–193. doi:10.1037/h0027277
Unsworth, N., Brewer, G. A., & Spillers, G. J. (2013). Focusing the search: Proactive and retroactive interference and the dynamics of free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 39(6), 1742.
Wickelgren, W. A. (1965). Acoustic similarity and retroactive interference in short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 4(1), 53-61.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document