Topics: Word, Grammar, Lexeme Pages: 6 (1428 words) Published: October 26, 2013

A. Collocation
Based on Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, collocation is a combination of words in a language that happens very often and more frequently than would happen by chance. Collocation is a term to refer to words that tend to appear together or words that tend to keep company. Frequent examples of collocation are onomatopoeic words, that is, words which are formed by imitating the sounds associated with the thing concerned. Some examples are: A horse neighs

A cat mews/ meows
A cock crows
A hen cackles
A cow moos
A buffalo bellows
A goat bleats
A sheep bleats
An elephant trumpets
A snake hisses
A mouse squeaks
A duck quacks
A dog barks
A dog whines
A bee hums
A bee buzzes
A bird chirps
Nida (1964:98) in Palmer (1982:76) gives examples of collocation of the word chair, like: Sat in a chair
The baby’s high chair
The chair of philosophy
Has accepted a University chair
The chairman of the meeting
Will chair the meeting
The electric chair
Condemned to the chair
Palmer explores some other examples of collocation, such as: blond hair, rancid bacon, rancid butter, addled brains, addled eggs, sour milk, pretty child, buxom woman, flock of sheep, herd of cows, school of whales, pride of lions. (1982:76-79) B. Idioms

Based on Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, an idiom is a group of words whose meaning is different from the meanings of individual words. An idiom is also a type of collocation, which there is a big difference between a collocation and an idiom. In most collocations, the conceptual meaning of the words that collocate is maintained, while in an idiom, the meaning of the idiom cannot be traced from the meaning of the individual words that collocate. An idiom is a group of words with a new meaning, which is quite different from the meaning of the words individually. Some English idioms are:


Put up with
Tolerate, endure
Live from hand to mouth
Spend money as soon as it is earned
Kick the bucket
Fly off the handle
Get very excited, angry
Spill the beans
To disclose a secret
Put across
To cause to be understood
Hair of the dog
A drink of liquor
Let one’s hair down
To relax
With a high hand
In an arrogant or dictatorial manner
Fly high
Full of hope
Give one his head
Permit someone to do as he likes
To step on someone’s toes
To offend
Run across
Meet or find accidently
Take the bull by the horns
To attack a problem fearlessly

These various kinds of word meaning become the store of ideas, which is very necessary in language comprehension (reading and listening), and language production (writing and speaking). In listening and reading, the various kinds of meaning are used to interpret and reconstruct the meaning, which is communicated, by the speaker or the writer. In speaking of writing, the various kinds of meaning are organized by syntactic rules and phonological rules in order to by written or spoken.

Based on Oxford Learner’s Dictionary, lexical meaning is the meaning of a word, without paying attention to the way that is used or to the words that occur with it. Grammatical is connected with the rules of grammar. Lexical meaning means the meaning of a base or root word without considering any prefix or suffix which may be attached. An example of lexical meaning is the meaning of the word "port" in the words import or portable. Grammatical meaning is the meaning of a word by reference to its function within a sentence rather than to a world outside the sentence compare lexical meaning, function word. “A dog barked”

The above is a meaningful sentence which is composed of smaller meaningful parts. One of the smaller parts is the pharese a dog which refers to certain animal.we call this phrase a referring expression.a referring expression is a piece of language that is used AS IF it is linked to something outside...
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