Self Discrepancy Theory

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higher-level goals incorporate life themes andvalues (Huffman et al. 2000). The moral value of being a goodperson is a globally positioned motivational goal (Emmons 1989)that functions on a regular basis. One proof for this is the cognitivedissonance that individuals experience when their actions arediscrepant with the cognitions of being competent and sensiblepersons (Aronson 1992). Similarly, self-discrepancy theory as-sumes that individuals evaluate themselves by comparing the actualself with the normative

ought

self, and a discrepancy can arisewhen, in a given situation, a decision or a behavior causes conflictwith these aspects of the self (Higgins

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