Self-Defense In Malcolm X's 'Message To Grassroots'

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Maybe the clearest case of Malcolm's effect on the reasoning of the BPP is simply the strategy of self-defense. Malcolm X used violence without regret to reach a specific end goal to accomplish the objectives of the African American people group. This was featured by his speech in 1964 in which he urged African Americans to utilize their entitlement to vote and threatened the government with a violent reaction if African Americans did not get full voting fairness, expressing "it's either the ballot or the bullet". The Black Panther Party later used the expression "The Ballot or the Bullet" as one of their signature phrases, in the hope for voting fairness. In his 'Message to Grassroots', Malcolm X clarified that self-defense among African Americans

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