Selecting the Right Livestock Replacement

Topics: Cattle, Price, Salvage value Pages: 28 (1703 words) Published: November 2, 2014
Selecting the Right Replacement

Robert S. Wells, Ph.D., PAS
Livestock Consultant

Develop a Plan

2

Start with the End in sight.
Start with the End
in sight.

When are you going to market the cattle?

Sell at Weaning…

Replacement Heifers

• What Breeds Should you consider?
What Breeds Should you consider?
– Types
– Heterosis
– Complementarity effects
p
y
– Marketing goals

• What is the Right Cow Type?
Wh t i th Ri ht C
T ?
• What is the Right Bull?
What is the Right Bull?
• Where to buy cattle?

2 Subspecies of Cattle
2 Subspecies of Cattle
• Bos taurus
– British breeds (Angus, Hereford)
– Continental breeds (Charolais, Simmental, 
Limousin, Gelbvieh, etc.)

• Bos indicus (Zebu, humped cattle)
Bos indicus (Zebu, humped cattle)
– Brahman
a a
– Nelore
– Gir, etc. 
Gir etc

Pure Breeds

Angus (British)

Reputation: Carcass and Maternal
p

Hereford (British)

Reputation: Maternal, easy fleshing, longevity
p
,
y
g,
g
y

Simmental (Continental)

Reputation: Maternal and growth
p
g

Simmental (Continental)
Simmental 
(Continental)

Gelbvieh (
Gelbvieh (Continental)
Continental)

Reputation: Maternal and growth
p
g

Gelbvieh (Continental)
Gelbvieh 
(Continental)

Limousin (Continental)
Limousin 
(Continental)

Reputation: 
Reputation: G
p
Growth

Charolais (Continental)
Charolais 
(Continental)

Reputation: Growth 
p

Shorthorn

Reputation: Maternal and Carcass
p

Longhorn

Reputation: Hardiness, Lean beef
p
,

Corriente

Reputation: Hardiness, roping stock
p
, p g

Composites
p
or

Cross Breds
Cross 
Breds

Black Baldy
Black Baldy

Super Baldy

Commercial Angus

Ultra Black
Ultra Black

Balancer

LimFlex

Hybrid vigor = Heterosis
Hybrid vigor
= Heterosis

Hybrid Vigor
Hybrid Vigor
• The
The increase/decrease in a particular trait 
increase/decrease in a particular trait
when compared to the average of that trait for 
each parent
each parent.
• M
Maternal hybrid vigor increases calving rate 
l h b id i
i
l i
(6%), weaning rate (8%), weaning weight (6%), 
and birth weight (2%).
d bi h i h (2%)

Maximum Heterosis

LimFlex Bull:
Angus x Limousin

F1 x F1 Cross
Parents are from 4 
unrelated breeds
Tiger Stripe Cow:
g
p
Brahman X Hereford

Decreases Uniformity, 
especially in multiple 
p
y
p
bull herds.

(2+2)/2 3 5
(2+2)/2 = 3.5

Levels of Heterosis
Individual 
H t
Heterosis, %
i %

Maternal 
H t
Heterosis, %
i %

Total 
H t
Heterosis, %
i %

Weaning rate

0

8

8

g @ Pubertyy
Age

‐3

Birth weight

4

2

6

Weaning weight

5

6

11

Yearling weight
li
i h

4

4

Cow Condition

‐4

‐4

g
Carcass weight

3

3

USDA quality grade

2

2

Rib eye area

2

2

Feed conversion, (F:G)

‐2

‐2

Days on feed

‐4

‐4

T it
Trait

‐3

Calf WW/exposed cow
WW/exposed cow

18

Cow longevity

38

Cow lifetime productivity

25

Heritability
Traits
Reproductive
Growth
Carcass

h2
Magnitude
< .2
 .6
Few traits have h
> .6

Breed Complementarity

36

Breed Complementarity
p
y
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

4
35
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0

Quality Grade; % Choice
Cundiff et al., 2004

Yield Grade
37

Breed Complementarity

The Ideal Cow

The Ideal Cow
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