Second Line Of Defense

Good Essays
The first line of defense is comprised of two barriers, the physical and chemical barriers. These barriers or blockades are always ready and prepared to defend the body from infection. The first barrier is the physical blockade between the inside of the body and the outer world. Physical blockades of the first defense system includes the skin, tears, and the stomach. After the outer line of defense is breached, the body starts it innate immune system to help prepare to take action on the foreign infectious disease or bacteria. The chemical barrier or the innate immunity is made up of a collection of white blood cells along with groups of chemical messengers. Innate immunity is activated by a set of molecules that are found only on invading …show more content…
This defense system is non-specific and non-adaptive. In the second line there are many cells involved such as leukocytes, neutrophils, T helper cells, cytotoxic T-cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, B-cells, and suppressor T-cells. The phagocytes or neutrophil squeeze through the capillary wall and into the infected tissue to engulf and digest offending …show more content…
The two cells have different responses, the T-cells are involved in a cell-mediated response, while the B-cell are involved in the humoral response. During the process of the T-cell response there are many different variations of the T-cell such as the killer T-cell, helper T-cells, suppressor T-cells, and memory cells. By using cytotoxic T-cell, the third response is able to detect and recognize antigens on the surface of infected cell. The cytotoxic T-cells then bind to the infected cells secrete cytotoxins that induce apoptosis in the infected cell and perforins that cause perforations in the infected cells. When both of these mechanisms are through they will help destroy pathogens in the infected body. This diagram will help with the visualization of these mechanism and their processes. Killer T-cells combine with antigens on the surface of any invading cell and release a powerful group of chemicals called lymphokines. Some lymphokines kill the pathogens directly, others stimulate lymphocytes to become active and help increase the inflammation so that there are more macrophages. Helper T-cells co-operate with B-cells in the antibody production. They also activate macrophages and promote inflammation. Memory cells remain even after the pathogens have been killed to stop

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Ch. 43 Ap Biology

    • 807 Words
    • 4 Pages

    An example of a barrier defense is the largest organ on the human body, the skin. This organ provides both physical and chemical barrier against the environment.…

    • 807 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Protection- By white blood cells, antibodies and complement proteins that circulate in blood and defend again foreign microbes and toxins. Also white blood cells clot when body is injured.…

    • 1077 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Hca 240 Appendix C

    • 300 Words
    • 2 Pages

    |4th |As the wounded part of the body reacts to the germs, |Certain cells destroy the germs |…

    • 300 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    CHAPTER 35

    • 3339 Words
    • 14 Pages

    Which type of immunity becomes active as a result of the infection of a specific microorganism?…

    • 3339 Words
    • 14 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    |4th |As the wounded part of the body reacts to the germs, |Neutrophils move toward the chemotaxis and destroy them. |…

    • 285 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Quiz for Chapter 29

    • 1832 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Signaling proteins that alert the immune system an infection is present and that sometimes directly fight pathogens are the:…

    • 1832 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    sepsis case study

    • 3020 Words
    • 18 Pages

    whole body. It is where the body’s defence mechanisms respond to an infection in some…

    • 3020 Words
    • 18 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Case Study

    • 361 Words
    • 2 Pages

    7. The Lymphocytes is responsible for building up immune resistance. Lymphocytes have 3 different cells; T cells that attack the virus, B cells carry out immune responses, and NK cells attack the virus.…

    • 361 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Immune System Correction

    • 420 Words
    • 2 Pages

    First and foremost, the white blood cells advance. Next, the Basophils is on the site as the histamines is use to bring the trusty monocytes and neutrophils. Later, the neutrophil travels along and devours frank. Now the monocytes turn into cell eaters who decide to consume the dead antigens and neutrophils.…

    • 420 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    If the V. Cholerae bacteria is successful in passing through the body’s first defence barrier (in this case the acidic environment in the stomach or alkaline environment in the small intestine), then it goes through the second defence barrier inside the body where phagocytes (white blood cells) which can…

    • 1610 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    The skin protects the body from catching any infections, a few points to avoid this are:…

    • 1612 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Once the surface barrier has been broken, the second line of defense, the innate internal defense system (nonspecific defense system), attempts to limit the spread of pathogens. Name the 5 components of the innate internal defense system:…

    • 1075 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    Infection begins when an organism successfully colonizes by entering the body, growing and multiplying. Most humans are not easily infected. Those who are weak, sick, malnourished, have cancer or are diabetic have increased susceptibility to chronic or persistent infections. Individuals who have a suppressed immune system are particularly susceptible to opportunistic infections. Entrance to the host generally occurs through the mucosa in orifices like the oral cavity, nose, eyes, genitalia, anus, or open wounds. While a few organisms can grow at the initial site of entry, many migrate and cause systemic infection in different organs. Some pathogens grow within the host cells (intracellular) whereas others grow freely in bodily fluids.…

    • 316 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Both types of adaptive immunity can cause problems with transplanted organs because they are systems created to help maintain homeostasis within the body. Cytotoxic T cells are part of the cell - mediated type of adaptive immunity. These cells are activated when specific foreign cells are detected in the body. They are cells that directly attack invading antigens within the body. (Tortora, 2014) Antibody-mediated immunity contains B cells that transforms into plasma membrane that synthesizes and secretes antibodies that bind to and deactivate specific antigens in the bodies fluids. (Tortora, 2014) An organ transplant cells usually is recognized in the body as non-self or foreign and provokes the adaptive immunity to respond with antigen fighting cells and plasma. Because both types work together to fight of antigens, they both can be troublesome for a transplant recipient ability to heal. (Tortora, 2014)…

    • 1061 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Lab2:Blood

    • 494 Words
    • 2 Pages

    C. Eosinophils- are white blood cells that protect the body by killing and swallowing bacteria.…

    • 494 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays