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SDLC Waterfall Model

By biswas1234 Apr 21, 2015 1005 Words

SDLC ­ Waterfall Model

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SDLC - Agile Model
SDLC - RAD Model
SDLC - Software Prototype
SDLC - Summary

SDLC Useful Resources
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SDLC - Waterfall Model

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The Waterfall Model was first Process Model to be introduced. It is also referred to as a linearsequential life cycle model. It is very simple to understand and use. In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases. Waterfall model is the earliest SDLC approach that was used for software development .



SDLC ­ Waterfall Model

The waterfall Model illustrates the software development process in a linear sequential flow; hence it is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model. This means that any phase in the development process begins only if the previous phase is complete. In waterfall model phases do not overlap.

Waterfall Model design
Waterfall approach was first SDLC Model to be used widely in Software Engineering to ensure success of the project. In "The Waterfall" approach, the whole process of software development is divided into separate phases. In Waterfall model, typically, the outcome of one phase acts as the input for the next phase sequentially. Following is a diagrammatic representation of different phases of waterfall model.

The sequential phases in Waterfall model are:
Requirement Gathering and analysis: All possible requirements of the system to be developed are captured in this phase and documented in a requirement specification doc. System Design: The requirement specifications from first phase are studied in this phase and system design is prepared. System Design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and also helps in defining overall system architecture. Implementation: With inputs from system design, the system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality which is referred to as Unit Testing.



SDLC ­ Waterfall Model

Integration and Testing: All the units developed in the implementation phase are integrated into a system after testing of each unit. Post integration the entire system is tested for any faults and failures. Deployment of system: Once the functional and non functional testing is done, the product is deployed in the customer environment or released into the market. Maintenance: There are some issues which come up in the client environment. To fix those issues patches are released. Also to enhance the product some better versions are released. Maintenance is done to deliver these changes in the customer environment. All these phases are cascaded to each other in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases. The next phase is started only after the defined set of goals are achieved for previous phase and it is signed off, so the name "Waterfall Model". In this model phases do not overlap.

Waterfall Model Application
Every software developed is different and requires a suitable SDLC approach to be followed based on the internal and external factors. Some situations where the use of Waterfall model is most appropriate are: Requirements are very well documented, clear and fixed.

Product definition is stable.
Technology is understood and is not dynamic.
There are no ambiguous requirements.
Ample resources with required expertise are available to support the product. The project is short.

Waterfall Model Pros & Cons
The advantage of waterfall development is that it allows for departmentalization and control. A schedule can be set with deadlines for each stage of development and a product can proceed through the development process model phases one by one. Development moves from concept, through design, implementation, testing, installation, troubleshooting, and ends up at operation and maintenance. Each phase of development proceeds in strict order.



SDLC ­ Waterfall Model

The disadvantage of waterfall development is that it does not allow for much reflection or revision. Once an application is in the testing stage, it is very difficult to go back and change something that was not well-documented or thought upon in the concept stage. The following table lists out the pros and cons of Waterfall model: Pros

Simple and easy to understand and

No working software is produced


until late during the life cycle.

Easy to manage due to the rigidity


of the model . each phase has


specific deliverables and a review




Not a good model for complex and
object-oriented projects.




completed one at a time.

where requirements are very well

Not suitable for the projects where
requirements are at a moderate to
high risk of changing. So risk and

Clearly defined stages.






It is difficult to measure progress

Easy to arrange tasks.


process model.

Well understood milestones.


Poor model for long and ongoing

Works well for smaller projects



within stages.





No working software is produced
until late in the life cycle.
Adjusting scope during the life cycle
can end a project.
Integration is done as a "big-bang.
at the very end, which doesn't allow
identifying any technological or
business bottleneck or challenges



SDLC ­ Waterfall Model

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