Kendall Benton 312 E. Center Street Blanchester, Ohio 45107 Abstract
Scoliosis has many different causes and effects, many of which cannot be explained or treated. Many lead to and are caused from related disorders that are discussed in the review. Treatment of the different types of curves are difficult. Operating on the spine is a strenuous process in areas that are hard to reach, which leads to many problems is damage occurs. Scoliosis in children is particularly difficult because the child is still growing and the pins, screws and/or plates can become displaced and do more damage than good. Studies are being preformed to improve surgery techniques as well as improving functionality among patients. Introduction
This review will focus on scoliosis and treatments pertaining to the disorder along with associating diseases. Scoliosis is commonly explained as a curvature of the spine. While there are many forms of scoliosis there are many more related disorders that are caused from and are associated with scoliosis. Three types are explained in Aebis article of The adult scoliosis. Type 1 is primary degenerative scoliosis that deals with mostly disc or facet joint arthritis. Type 2 is Idiopathic adolescent scoliosis of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine in which correction and fusions could be needed. Type 3 is Secondary adult curves. This is divided in to types A and B. A, being neuromuscular and congenital scoliosis, or asymmetrical anomalies at lumbosacral junction. B is involves metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and asymmetric arthritic disease along with vertebral fractures (Aebi, 2005). The treatment of lumbar scoliosis in adolescents has new and developing methods. Maurice describes his study of anterior instrumentation in young adults compared to other studies of posterior instrumentation (Maurice, 2013). Mullin describes the correlated disc degeneration shown in MRIs and correlated pain and disability. His studies are focused on spinal cord abnormalities using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and locating the site of pain to frequency of inflammation. His focus is on the end plate changes in deformed patients compared to non-deformed patients and the correlation to disk degeneration (Mullin, 2007). Scoliosis and neuromuscular disorders such as Kyphosis or Iordais results from the progressiveness of scoliosis and the involvement and compression of the heart, and lungs, pain, skin integrity, etc. The effects on well being of patients is also compromised. Programs and supporters help patients with acceptance and tips on how to live with limited mobility (Kishnani, 2011). Body Types of scoliosis and how each is characterized Scoliosis is a spinal deformity in a patient with a Cobb angle of more than 10 degrees in a coronal plain and can be separated into four groups (are as follows) (Aebil, 2005). Type 1 primary degenerative scoliosis mostly consists of disc and facet joint arthritis while affecting structures that cause back pain symptoms. The curves caused by this type of scoliosis are de novo scoliosis. This type also is shown to lead to spinal stenosis which is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal resulting sometimes resulting in a neurolgical deficit. Type 2 Idiopathis adolescent scoliosis of the thorasics and or lumbar spine is most often associated with secondary degeneration and/or imbalance. This is due to the progressiveness through adulthood. Type 3a Secondary adult curves are secondary degeneration and progression of the adjacent curve. People of this type of scoliosis most commonly suffer from an oblique pelvis. This can be considers leg length discrepancy, hip pathology, neuromuscular and congenital scoliosis, or anomalies at the lumbosacral junction. Type 3b Deformity progressing is mostly osteoporosis combined with asymmetric arthritic disease and/or vertebral fractures. In these cases, it is hard to find the direct cause of the curve due to the late age progression. In these cases,...
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