Scientific Management and Human Relations Approaches in 21st Century

Topics: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Motivation, Abraham Maslow Pages: 13 (4246 words) Published: November 4, 2012



DATE: 2012

Organization is a group of at least two people intentionally organized to accomplish specific goals. Therefore, this leads to the appearance of management and organizational behavior theory with a view to developing an organization. In which, management is the process of working with people and a variety of resources such as human, information, facilities, etc in order to achieve organizational goals while organizational behavior as J. & Davis, K. (1993) showed that is “the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals and groups act in organizations”. These methods had further been developed which resulted in Scientific Management as well as Human Relations approaches which exist in a large number of organizations and play an important role in making organizations successful. Notwithstanding, there are significant modifications in the way modern organizations work placed alongside traditional organizations. Hence, this raises a question of whether Scientific Management and Human Relations approaches are still applicable in 21st –century organizations. This essay provides detailed information about these theories as well as the analysis of their advantages and disadvantages. Thereby, their application will be indicated and evaluated so as to find out whether they are appropriate to modern organization or not.

A. Scientific Management:
1. Overview:
a, Definition: Scientific management (also called Taylorism) was developed by Frederick. W. Taylor (who was considered as the father of scientific management) in 1980s and 1990s within the manufacturing industries and was first published in his first monographs, namely A Piece Rate System (1985), Shop Management (1903) and The Principles of Scientific Management (1911).

b, Principle of Scientific Management: Scientific management was a theory of management analyzing and synthesizing workflows. According to Fredrick Winslow Taylor: "Scientific management means knowing exactly what you want men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and the cheapest way." To be specific, there are four principles of scientific management. The first is the development of science for each person’ work with a view to replacing the old rule-of-thumb methods. The second are scientific selection, training and the development of workers with the aim of assisting employees in training themselves as best they can. The third is the co-operation between workers and management so that work is ensured to be implemented based on devised procedures. The ultimate is the division of work and responsibility between management and workers, in which all the organizational members are offered equal shares and responsibilities. Additionally, there is encouraging and motivating workers by incentive bonuses or payments. All of these principles focus on the main objective that is increasing productivity as well as the efficiency of working methods.

c, Advantages and disadvantages: Every story has two sides and scientific management makes no exception. It also has pros and cons. First and foremost is about is advantages. Through scientific management, the work is simplified and standardized as it is broken down into component parts. This leads to increasing productivity and increased turnover accordingly that attracts investor with foreseeable profits. In addition, it...

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