Foreign Trade University
7th April, 2013
Scientific management (also called Taylorism or the Taylor system) is a theory of management that analyzes and synthesizes workflows, improving labor productivity. The core ideas of the theory were developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s. Frederick Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study of an individual at work. Its application is contingent on a high level of managerial control over employee work practices. A central part of the study of organization and management is the development of management thinking and what might be termed management theory. The application of theory brings about change in actual behavior. Managers reading the work of leading writers on the subject might see in their ideas and conclusions a message about how they should behave. This will affect their attitudes towards management practice. The study of management theory is important for the following reasons: It helps to view the interrelationships between the developments of theory, behavior in organizations and management practice. An understanding of the development of management thinking helps in understanding principles underlying the process of management. Knowledge of the history helps in understanding the nature of management and organizational behavior and reasons for the attention given to main topic areas. Many of the earlier ideas are of continuing importance to the manager and later ideas on management tend to incorporate earlier ideas and conclusions. Management theories are interpretive and evolve in line with changes in the organizational environment. The Human Relations Approach can be seen as being almost entirely antithetical to the principles of classical management theory. Where classical management focused on the rationalization of work routines, human relations approaches stressed the accommodation of work routines and individual emotional and relational needs as a means of increasing productivity. The human relations approach was made possible by the fairly coercive suppression of the most radical organized labor movements. In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way. More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. Instead, one tends to think in terms of the various processes, tasks, and objects subject to management. Branches of management theory also exist relating to nonprofits and to government: such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil-society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship. In management literature today, the greatest use of the concept of Scientific Management (or Taylorism) is as a contrast to a new, improved way of doing business. In political and sociological terms, Taylorism can be seen as the division of labor pushed to its logical extreme, with a consequent de-skilling of the worker and dehumanization of the workplace. Many of the classical writers were concerned with the improvement of management as a means of increasing productivity. At this time, emphasis was on the problem of obtaining increased productivity from individual workers through the technical structuring of the work organization and the provision of monetary incentives as the motivator for higher levels of output. A major contributor to this approach was F. W. Taylor (1856–1917), the ‘father’ of scientific management. Taylor believed that in the same way that there is a best machine for each job, so there is a best working method by which people should undertake their jobs.me considered that all work processes could be analyzed into discrete tasks and that by scientific method it was...
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