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Science Pri

By sopheaproeung Apr 25, 2015 7341 Words
SCIENCE SYLLABUS
Primary 3 & 4
Primary 5 & 6 (EM1 & EM2)
Primary 5 & 6 (EM3)

CURRICULUM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
SINGAPORE
© MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
YEAR OF IMPLEMENTATION FROM 2001

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INTRODUCTION
PHILOSOPHY AND AIMS
What is Science education?
The study of science is an attempt to understand the natural world. Science may be broadly conceived of as comprising a body of knowledge about the natural world and a set of skills and processes by which this knowledge is acquired, synthesised, evaluated and applied. Science education refers to the training necessary for learners to acquire this body of knowledge and the set of skills. This acquisition is realised primarily through the use of problem-solving exercises and practical investigations of the environment.

Why do we need Science education?
There are generally two main goals of a Science education. First, it inculcates scientific literacy for all, so that people can make informed choices in their personal lives and approach challenges in the workplace in a systematic and logical way. This is crucial in preparing the workforce to confidently face an economy and work environment that will be increasingly knowledge-based. Second, it aims to produce competent professionals in the various scientific disciplines who can carry out work on research and development at the highest level.

How should Science be taught?
The acquisition of scientific skills essentially involves seeking answers to problems. The knowledge obtained from this process can then be organised into facts and general principles from which useful predictions can be made about natural phenomena. For pupils to have meaningful learning of this set of facts and general principles, it is important that they be allowed to experience first hand the process of seeking answers to problems. This requires that the pupils physically explore and discover knowledge, be it within their environment or in the laboratory. They must then be able to effectively integrate and link new concepts to the existing body of knowledge. The learning of science has been re-mapped into equipping pupils with basic process skills to acquire and manage information. Thus, the focus of learning will now be on the integration of these basic process skills in complex processes such as creative problem solving, decision-making and investigation.

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The learning of science also provides excellent opportunities for the development of attitudes. Science experiences in the primary school can cultivate an interest in and love for the subject which could continue to grow long after pupils have left school.

These positive attitudes are:
• curiosity to explore their environment and question what they find • keenness to identify and answer questions through carrying out investigations • creativity in suggesting novel and relevant ways to solve problems • open-mindedness to accept all knowledge as tentative and to change their view if the evidence is convincing

• perseverance in pursuing a problem until a satisfying solution is found • concern for living things and awareness of the responsibility they have for the quality of the environment

What are the aims of the primary science syllabus?
The primary science syllabus aims to:
• provide primary pupils with experiences which build on their interest in and stimulate their curiosity about their environment
• provide pupils with scientific concepts to help them understand themselves and the world around them
• provide pupils with opportunities to develop skills, habits of mind and attitudes necessary for scientific enquiry
• prepare pupils toward using scientific knowledge and methods in making personal decisions
• help pupils appreciate how Science and Technology influence people and the environment

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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The approach in this revised syllabus towards the learning of science is based on themes that pupils can relate to their everyday experiences, and to the commonly observed phenomena in nature. The basic aim is to enable students to appreciate the links between seemingly different topics and thus allow the eventual integration of scientific ideas. The five themes chosen are: Diversity, Cycles, Systems, Energy and Interactions. These themes encompass a core body of concepts in both the life and physical sciences. This body of concepts has been chosen because it provides a broad based understanding of the environment, and it will help build a foundation upon which pupils can rely for further study. In particular, the relationships between Science and Technology and the environment are explored under the theme of Interactions. Although the content of the syllabus is organised into 5 themes, the topics under each theme are not to be viewed as compartmentalised blocks of knowledge. In general, there are no clear boundaries between these themes. There may be topics common to different themes. Hence, a conscious effort is needed to demonstrate the relationship between themes whenever possible. In particular, it should be noted that Systems, Energy and Interactions are closely related.

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MAIN IDEAS IN EACH THEME
The focus of each theme is given below.
Diversity
Pupils should appreciate that there is a great variety of living and non-living things in the world. Man seeks to organise this great variety to better understand the world in which he lives. There are common threads that connect all living things and unifying factors in the diversity of non-living things that help him to classify them. Cycles

Pupils should recognise that there are repeated patterns of change in nature and understand how these patterns arise. Examples of these cycles are the day and night cycle, life cycles of living things and the recycling of resources. Studying these cycles helps Man to predict events and processes and to understand the Earth as a selfsustaining system. Systems

Pupils should recognise that a system is a whole consisting of parts that work together to perform a function. There are systems in nature as well as man-made systems. Parts of a system influence one another. Two or more systems can interact with one another to perform a function. Examples of systems in nature are the digestive systems and respiratory systems. Examples of man-made systems are the mechanical and electrical systems.

Interactions
Pupils should appreciate that a study of the interactions between and within systems helps Man to gain better control of his environment. There are many types of interactions. There are interactions between the living world and the environment at various levels; i.e. interactions which occur within an organism, between organisms as well as between organisms and the environment. There are also interactions between forces and objects. At the societal level, the interaction of Man with his environment drives the development of Science and Technology. At the same time, Science and Technology influences the way Man interacts with his environment. Energy

Pupils should appreciate that energy affects both living and non-living things. There are many forms of energy and one form can be converted to another. Man uses energy in many ways. Living things procure energy and use it to carry out life processes. Energy makes changes and movement possible in everyday life.

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SKILLS AND PROCESSES IN PRIMARY SCIENCE
Scientific enquiry requires and enables the development of process skills. Science process skills encompass both thinking skills as well as practical skills. The primary science syllabus seeks to develop basic process skills and the use of these skills in more complex integrated processes. The skills and processes taught at the primary level are:

A. Basic Process Skills
• Observing
• Comparing
• Classifying
• Measuring and using apparatus
• Communicating
• Analysing
• Generating
• Evaluating
B. Integrated Processes
• Creative problem solving
• Decision-making
• Investigation
Basic Process Skills
• Observing
This is the skill of using our senses to gather information about objects or events. This also includes the use of instruments to extend the range of our senses. • Comparing
This is the skill of identifying the similarities and differences between two or more objects, concepts or processes.
• Classifying
This is the skill of grouping objects or events based on common characteristics. • Measuring and using apparatus
This is the skill of knowing the functions and limitations of various apparatus, and developing the ability to select and handle them appropriately for various tasks.

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• Communicating
This is the skill of transmitting and receiving information presented in various forms verbal, tabular, graphi cal or pictorial. • Analysing
This is the skill of identifying the parts of objects, information or processes, and the patterns and relationships between these parts.
• Generating
This is the skill of adding to, extending or connecting given ideas by tapping into prior knowledge or gathered information.
• Evaluating
This is the skill of assessing the reasonableness, accuracy and quality of information, processes or ideas. This is also the skill of assessing the quality and feasibility of objects.

B. Integrated Processes
Integrated processes are complex operations which call upon the use of several basic process skills. At the primary level, the integrated processes expected of pupils are: • Creative Problem Solving

This is a process of analysing a problem and choosing a novel but relevant solution in order to remedy or alter a problem situation.
• Decision-Making
Decision-making is the process of establishing and applying criteria to select from among seemingly equal alternatives. The process of establishing criteria involves consideration of the consequences and values.

• Investigation
This involves formulating questions or hypotheses, devising fair methods and carrying out those methods to find out answers to the questions or to verify the hypotheses.

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INTRODUCING SKILLS AND PROCESSES TO PUPILS
The table below shows the level at which skills and processes can be introduced. These skills and processes should continue to be developed at the higher levels. Basic Process Skills

Observing

To be introduced
at the following
level:
P3

Comparing

P3

Classifying

P3

Measuring and using apparatus

P3

Communicating (verbal, pictorial)

P3

Communicating (tabular)

P4

Communicating (graphical)

P5

Analysing
• identify parts of a system,
• identify the relationships between these parts
• relate the parts to their functions
Analysing
• identify patterns and trends in data
• identify variables that will affect the investigation
Analysing
• identify the relationships between the variables
• identify those aspects which make an investigation
unfair
• specify the variables to be controlled
Generating
• suggest many, varied and original ideas with some
detail
• draw inferences or conclusions from observations
(induction)
• make predictions
Generating
• give reasonable explanations based on evidence
Generating
• construct hypothesis
• devise a method to test a hypothesis

P3
P3
P4

P5

P3

P4
P5

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Evaluating
• decide on the quality and feasibility of an idea or object Evaluating
• decide whether an inference/hypothesis is supported by
observations
• decide on the effectiveness of the method used in an
investigation
Evaluating
• construct an idea to explain observations and then test it • decide on the accuracy of data obtained in an
investigation
Integrated Processes

P4

Creative Problem Solving

P4

Decision-Making

P4

Investigation

P5

P5

P6

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ASSESSMENT
Assessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning process. Pupils are assessed on their understanding of science concepts and mastery of basic process skills and integrated processes. From the results of the assessment, the teacher makes informed decisions about what should be done to enhance the learning of the pupils or to improve his/her teaching methods. The information gained from an assessment should reflect accurately that aspect of learning to be assessed. For example, a paper and pencil test could be used effectively to test for the understanding of science concepts but would not be suitable for assessing pupils’ practical skills. A variety of assessment modes should be used and these include the following: • paper and pencil test

• practical work
• written assignments
• multimedia presentations
• model-making
• debates
• drama
• creative assignments such as boardgames, quizzes and posters Although the first two modes are usually employed in formal assessment, i.e. continual and semestral assessments, the other alternative modes should also be considered for use in formal assessment as they lend themselves well to assessing pupils’ creativity and thinking.

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SYLLABUS CONTENT
THEMES AND TOPICS ACROSS LEVELS
LEVEL
P3

P4

P5

P6

THEME

TOPIC

Diversity

• Materials
• Variety and characteristics of living things

Interactions

• Magnets

Systems

• Digestive and Skeletal/muscular systems

Cycles

• Life cycles of plants and animals

Cycles

• Matter
• Water

Energy

• Light
• Heat

Systems

• Plant parts and their functions
• Respiratory and circulatory systems

Cycles

• Day and night cycles
• Reproduction in plants and animals

Interactions

• Simple Machines

Systems

• Electrical system
• Mechanical system

Energy

• Photosynthesis
• Respiration

Diversity

• Classification of Materials

Energy

• Forms of energy & conversions

Interactions

• Forces
• Environmental Impact
• Ecology

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
PRIMARY 3
Learning Outcomes

Remarks

Pupils should be able to:
DIVERSITY
a) infer that there is a great variety of living and non-living things.



Pupils could make the inference by
observing living and non-living things
in the local environment or gathering
information from a variety of sources
such as print material, CD-ROM,
Internet sites.

b) observe a variety of living things(animals, plants, fungi) and non-living things.



Pupils are not expected to observe
micro-organisms. No laboratory work
is expected for micro-organisms.



The broad groups are:
flowering plants, non-flowering
plants, micro-organisms, fungi,
insects, birds, fish, mammals
No laboratory work is expected for
micro-organisms so pupils use print
or IT resources.

f) recognise that there is a great variety of materials.



Materials such as plastics, wood,
rubber, glass, fabrics, ceramics and
metals.

g) compare materials on the basis of the following physical
properties:
∗ hardness
∗ strength
∗ flexibility
∗ float/sink in water.



Materials for comparison are wood,
metal, plastic and rubber.

h) relate the above properties of the materials to their use.



Materials: wood, metal, plastic and

c) infer the following characteristics of living things:
- they need water, food and air;
- they grow, move, respond and reproduce.
d) classify living things into broad groups according to
common observable characteristics.

e) recognise that similarities and differences exist within
groups of plants and animals.

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Learning Outcomes

Remarks
rubber.

CYCLES
a) show an understanding that different organisms have
different life cycles.



Pupils should observe and record
the changes in a particular plant
when grown from seeds or bulbs.

b) compare the life cycles of the butterfly and cockroach.



Pupils should observe and record
the changes that occur in a
particular animal over a period of
time e.g. hatch an egg and observe
development of a chick.

c) show an awareness that offspring take the characteristics of their parents, therefore, adult living things closely
resemble their parents.



The idea of heredity can be
introduced.

SYSTEMS
a) show an understanding that an organism is a system
which has different parts to carry out different functions.

Key points are:
• plants have roots, stem, leaves,
flowers, fruit
• animals have organs to enable them
to detect and respond to
environmental stimuli and to carry
out life processes.

b) identify the following organ systems in humans and state
their functions: digestive, respiratory, circulatory, skeletal, muscular.
c) relate plant parts to their role in photosynthesis.



Pupils need to relate the following
plant parts to their role in
photosynthesis:
- leaves where photosynthesis takes
place
- roots which anchor the plant and
take in water and minerals
- tubes which transport water
through the stem to the leaves.

d) describe briefly the organs in the human digestive system and relate them to their function.



Key points are:
- digestion takes place in the mouth,
stomach and intestines
- food must be physically broken into
smaller pieces so that digestive

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Learning Outcomes

Remarks



e) recognise the interaction between the human skeletal and
muscular systems in enabling movement.



juices in the various organs can act
on them
- digestion breaks down food into a
form which can be absorbed into the
blood.
Pupils should appreciate that
individual organs of the digestive
system have their own functions but
the complete digestive process
requires the working of the whole
system comprising various organs.
Pupils should appreciate that 2 or
more systems can interact to
perform a function.

INTERACTIONS
a) identify the characteristics of magnets.







Characteristics are:
Magnets are made of iron or steel
Magnets have two poles. A freely
suspended bar magnet comes to
rest pointing in N-S direction
Unlike poles attract and like poles
repel
Magnets attract magnetic materials
like iron.

b) differentiate between magnets and non-magnets.
c) make a magnet by the ‘Touch’ method and the electrical method.
d) list some uses of magnets in everyday objects.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
PRIMARY 4
Learning Outcomes

Remarks

Pupils should be able to:
CYCLES
a) state that matter is anything that has mass and occupies
space.
b) describe the three states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) in terms of their maintenance of shape and volume.
c) differentiate between the three states of matter.
d) show an understanding of the importance of water to life. e) show an understanding of the importance of the water
cycle.
f) list some uses of water.



In home, industries and agriculture.




Pupils should infer that:
0
when water is cooled to 0 C, it
freezes and changes to ice
when ice is heated, it melts and
changes to water
0
when water is heated to 100 C, it
boils and changes to steam
when steam is cooled, it condenses
to water.

g) recognise that water can exist in three interchangeable
states of matter.
h) investigate the effect of heat gain or loss on the state of water.




i) state the freezing point (or melting point of ice) and the boiling point of water and show an understanding of these
terms.
j) investigate the factors which affect the rate of evaporation.



Factors are wind, temperature
difference and exposed surface area.

k) show an understanding of the roles of condensation and
evaporation in the water cycle.
l) describe the impact of water pollution on the Earth’s water resources.

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Learning Outcomes
m) show an awareness of the need to conserve water.

Remarks


Pupils should gather, organise and
interpret data on water use at home
and in school. NE can be
incorporated here.



Pupils need to know these gases:
nitrogen, carbon dioxide and oxygen.

SYSTEMS
a) recognise that air is a mixture of gases and water vapour.

b) compare how plants, fish and mammals take in oxygen
and give out carbon dioxide.
c) name the organs of the human respiratory and circulatory
systems and describe their functions.

Key points are:
• In humans, the heart pumps blood to
all parts of the body
• Humans also have tubes called
blood vessels which carry blood
• Blood transports nutrients, digested
food, oxygen and carbon dioxide and
other materials in the body
The human respiratory system is

made up of the lungs and air tubes
that carry air to and from the lungs
• At the lungs, oxygen is absorbed into
the blood and carbon dioxide is
removed.

d) compare the ways in which nutrients, water and oxygen
are transported within plants and animals.



Besides the tubes which transport
water and minerals, plants have
other tubes which transport food to
other parts of the plant. These can
be compared with the blood vessels
in animals.

e) recognise the integration of the different systems in
carrying out life processes.



For example, the digestive system is
needed to make food small enough
to be absorbed and the circulatory
system is needed to transport the
digested food to all parts of the body.
Similarly, the respiratory system is
needed to take in oxygen and give
out carbon dioxide while the
circulatory system is needed to
transport oxygen to all parts of the
body and carbon dioxide from all
parts of the body to the lungs.



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Learning Outcomes

Remarks

ENERGY
a) recognise that energy is required to make things work or
move.
b) state that living things need energy to carry out life
processes.
c) recognise that the Sun is our primary source of light and heat energy.

d) infer that an object can be seen when it reflects light or when it is a source of light.
e) investigate the transparency of materials to light.




Terms such as opaque, translucent
and transparent are not required
Pupils could use a datalogger with a
light sensor for the investigation.

f) recognise that a shadow is formed when light is completely or partially blocked by an object.
g) differentiate the ways in which plants and animals obtain their food.



Pupils should show an understanding
that energy from the sun is used by
plants to make their food and that
animals cannot make their own food.
When animals eat plants, the energy
stored in the food is passed to them.



Pupils should handle different types
of thermometer, such as laboratory
thermometer and the temperature
sensor used with a datalogger.

h) list some common sources of heat.
i) state that the temperature of an object is a measurement
of its degree of hotness or coldness.
j) use a thermometer.

k) differentiate between heat and temperature.
l) show an understanding that heat flows from a hotter to a
colder object until both reach the same temperature.

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Learning Outcomes

Remarks

m) relate the change in temperature of an object to the gain or • loss of heat by the object.




Pupils should infer that
a gain in heat generally causes a rise
in temperature
a loss in heat generally causes a fall
in temperature
A datalogger and a temperature
sensor may be used.

n) list some effects of heat gain/loss in our daily life.





o) identify good and bad conductors of heat.

• Examples:
Good conductors: metals
Bad conductors: wood, plastic, air
(Comparison of ability to conduct heat
within each group of materials is not
required).

Examples from:
contraction/expansion of objects
water cycle.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
PRIMARY 5 EM1/2
Learning Outcomes

Remarks

Pupils should be able to:
CYCLES
a) state the composition of the Solar System.



The Sun, the Earth, the Moon and
other planets (names and positions
of these other planets are not
required).

b) show an awareness that the Earth’s position from the Sun is one of the major factors contributing to Earth’s ability to support life.



A combination of factors, like the
Earth’s atmosphere and its position
from the Sun, help to maintain the
right environment on Earth to
support life.



Use models to show that the Moon
takes about 28 days to go around
the Earth and relate the phases of
the Moon to this movement.
Relate the length of a day to the
rotation of the Earth about its axis
and the length of a year to the
movement of the Earth around the
Sun.

c) recognise that the Sun is a star that gives out light.
d) recognise that the Moon and planets in the Solar System
do not give out light but are seen by reflected light.
e) show an awareness that there is regularity in the
movements of the Earth and the Moon.



f) list some uses of man-made satellites.



For example: communication, space
exploration and observations of
weather patterns.

g) show an understanding that a cell is a single unit of life.



Examples of single cell organisms:
bacteria, yeast, paramecium.

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Learning Outcomes

Remarks

h) identify the different parts of a plant cell and relate the • parts to the functions:
• cell wall
• cell membrane
• cytoplasm
• nucleus
• chloroplasts.

Examine plant cells under the
microscope. Use prepared slides of
plant cells or mount onion epidermal /
Elodea on slides.

i) identify the different parts of an animal cell and relate the • parts to the functions:
• cell membrane
• cytoplasm
• nucleus.

Examine animal cells under the
microscope. Use prepared slides of
animal cells or mount cheek cells on
slides.

j) show an understanding that a cell divides to produce new
cells and that this division is necessary for an organism to grow.



Observe the budding of yeast under
the microscope. Details of cell
division are not required.

k) show an understanding that living things reproduce to
ensure continuity of their kind and that many
characteristics of an organism are passed on from parents
to offspring.



Give examples of genetic traits such
as:
- tongue rolling
- attached / detached ear lobes.

l) investigate and compare the various ways in which plants
reproduce i.e. by spores, seeds, and from other plant
parts such as underground stems, suckers and leaves.



Pupils do not have to distinguish
between different types of
underground stems.

m) name the following processes in the sexual reproduction
of flowering plants : pollination, fertilisation (seed
production), seed dispersal and germination.



Pupils are not expected to give
detailed descriptions of the
processes but should know the
sequence of events.

n) recognise the similarity in terms of fertilisation in the sexual reproduction of flowering plants and animals.



Pupils need to recognise that in
many animals, including humans,
females produce eggs and males
produce sperm. In flowering plants,
the egg and male gametes are
produced in the flowers. When an
egg and a male gamete fuse, a new
individual is formed.
Detailed knowledge of the human
reproductive system is not required.
But pupils need to know that the
ovaries produce eggs, the testes
produce sperms and the fertilised
egg develops in the womb.



INTERACTIONS

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Learning Outcomes

Remarks

a) identify a force as a push or a pull.
b) list some simple machines.



lever, pulley, wheel and axle,
inclined plane, gears.

c) manipulate these simple machines to determine their
characteristics and uses.



Pupils are to develop concepts and
understanding through manipulation
and play.
They are not expected to memorise
these characteristics but ought to
develop an understanding that each
one makes work easier to do by:
i.
providing some trade-off
between the force applied
and the distance over which
the force is applied
ii.
changing the direction of the
applied force
iii.
changing the speed and/or
direction of rotation.
Introduce the idea that examples of
levers can be found in the interaction
of the skeletal and muscular
systems. The muscles provide the
forces for the movement of the
bones. One such example can be
found in the arm.





SYSTEMS
a) recognise that an electric circuit consisting of a power
source and other circuit components forms an electrical
system.



Components of electric circuits are:
dry cells, wires, bulbs, switches.

b) show an understanding that a current can only flow
through a closed circuit.



Pupils can demonstrate
understanding by the following
means:
trace the path of current flow in a
closed circuit
distinguish between a closed circuit
and an open circuit (by interpreting
circuit diagrams or by carrying out
experiments).




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Learning Outcomes

Remarks

c) recognise that
- a battery provides energy in a closed circuit
- current transports energy from the battery to the bulb.
d) use a switch to break or close a circuit.
e) construct simple circuits from circuit diagrams.




f) infer that components of an electrical system affect one
another.





g) identify electrical conductors and electrical insulators.

Restrict components to batteries,
wires, switches and bulbs.
Symbols representing circuit
components can be used.
Pupils are to:
infer that the current affects the
brightness of bulbs
investigate the effect of some
variables on the current in a circuit.
These variables to be investigated
are:
- number of batteries
- number of bulbs
- arrangement of batteries.



Examples:
Conductors: metals
Insulators: wood, plastic, rubber
(Comparison of ability to conduct
electric current within each group is
not required).



Example:
Touching switches with wet hands
may cause nasty electrical shock.

h) infer that good conductors of electricity are generally good conductors of heat.
i) show an awareness of the need for proper use and
handling of electricity.

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Learning Outcomes
j) show an awareness of the need to conserve electrical
energy.

Remarks






Briefly mention that the energy
resources used to generate
electricity come from fuels which are
exhaustible. NE can be incorporated
here. Topic is covered in depth at
lower secondary level.
Pupils should be encouraged to
demonstrate ways to conserve
electrical energy in school and at
home.
Pupils should gather, organise and
interpret data on electrical energy
use at home and in school.

ENERGY
a) show an understanding that water, light energy and
carbon dioxide are needed for photosynthesis and sugar
and oxygen are produced.
b) show an understanding that food produced by plants
becomes the source of energy for animals.
c) recognise that respiration is a process in which energy is made available for life processes to occur.

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
PRIMARY 6 EM1/2
Learning Outcomes

Remarks

Pupils should be able to:
DIVERSITY
a) show an awareness that materials as well as organisms
can be grouped based on their properties or
characteristics.
b) classify some common materials.







c) relate the properties of the materials to their use.

Although pupils may also classify
materials based on criteria like colour
and texture, teachers should also direct
pupils to classify materials based on the
following criteria:
their degree of transparency to light
whether they are magnetic or nonmagnetic
whether they are good or bad heat
conductors
whether they are electrical conductors
or electrical insulators.



Properties include those covered at P3
as well as the degree of transparency
to light, magnetic, electrical and thermal
properties.



The forms of energy are:
kinetic energy, potential energy, light
energy, electrical energy, sound
energy, heat energy.
Examples of potential energy include
gravitational potential energy and
chemical energy.

d) differentiate among plants, animals and fungi based on
form, nutrition and movement.
ENERGY
a) show an awareness that energy from most of our energy
resources is derived in some ways from the Sun.
b) recognise and give examples of the various forms of
energy.



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Learning Outcomes

Remarks

c) show an understanding that energy can be converted from • one form to another.



Examples include:
photosynthesis - light energy is
converted to chemical energy
chemical energy in a dry cell in a closed
circuit is converted to electrical energy
which in turn is converted to light and
heat energy in the filament bulb.

INTERACTIONS
a) recognise and give examples of the different types of
forces.



Types are: gravitational force, elastic
spring force, frictional force and
magnetic force.



Magnets exert forces of attraction on
magnetic materials like iron
Like poles of magnets exert a force of
repulsion on each other while unlike
poles exert a force of attraction on
each other.

b) recognise that friction is a force that opposes motion.
c) recognise that when springs are stretched or compressed,
they exert a force on whatever is stretching or
compressing them.
d) recognise that objects have weight because of the
gravitational force between them and the Earth.
e) recognise that magnets can exert forces of attraction and repulsion.



f) show an understanding of the effects of a force.





g) observe and describe the characteristics of a local
environment.



Effects are:
A force can speed up, slow down or
change the direction of motion
A force may change the shape of
objects.
Pupils could use sensors and
dataloggers to study the physical
characteristics of the environment.

h) collect and record information regarding the interacting
factors within an environment.

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Learning Outcomes

Remarks

i) identify the following factors that affect the survival of an organism :
- the physical characteristics of the environment
- availability of food
- types of other organisms present.



Pupils should have experiences in
building and maintaining terraria or
aquaria.

j) discuss the effect on organisms when the environment
becomes unfavourable.



Pupils should be aware that some
organisms adapt and survive while
others die or move to new
environments.

k) trace the energy pathway from the sun through living

things and identify the roles of various organisms in a food chain and a food web.


Pupils are expected to show an
understanding of
- the roles of producers, consumers,
decomposers
- predator- prey relationship.
Decomposers obtain their food by
breaking down dead plants and
animals.

l) differentiate among the terms organism, population,
community.

Key points are:
An organism is a living thing.

• A population is defined as a group of
plants and animals of the same kind,
living and reproducing at a given place
and time.
• A community consists of many
populations living together in a
particular place.

m) show an understanding that different habitats support
different communities.




n) recognise that adaptations serve to enhance survival and
can be structural or behavioural.

Pupils should go on field trips to
explore a variety of environments. NE
can be incorporated here.
Pupils should infer that the place
where populations find all the things
they need to live and reproduce is their
habitat e.g. garden, field, pond,
seashore, tree.

Key point is:
• Adaptations enhance survival by
enabling the organism to :
- cope with physical factors
- obtain food
- escape predators
- reproduce by finding and attracting
mates, or dispersing seeds.

26

Learning Outcomes
o) give examples of man’s impact (both positive and
negative) on the environment.

Remarks

*

*

Examples are:
Indiscriminate actions by man lead to
the destruction of the environment e.g.
deforestation.
Local examples of how man can
improve the environment e.g. greening
of Singapore (NE can be incorporated
here).

p) show an awareness that man creates materials to meet
the technological needs of society.



Some man-made materials: alloys,
plastics, ceramics.

q) show an awareness that the development of science and
technology affects the environment.



Pupils are to compare the
environmental impact of using natural
and man-made materials and suggest
ways to prevent pollution. NE can be
incorporated here.

r) show an awareness that man’s interaction with the
environment influences the development of science and
technology.



Pupils list some areas in science and
technology, which were developed as a
result of man’s interaction with the
environment.
Examples are:
biotechnology
- genetically modified food that are
pest resistant
- cultivation of rice that are high
yielding, drought-resistant or
disease-resistant
- use of living organisms to make
products, such as in fermentation
telecommunication
(examples: handphones, Internet,
satellites).


*

*

27

LEARNING OUTCOMES
PRIMARY 5 EM3
Learning Outcomes

Remarks

Pupils should be able to:
CYCLES
a) state the composition of the Solar System.



The Sun, the Earth, the Moon and
other planets (names and positions
of these other planets are not
required).



Use models to show that the Moon
takes about 28 days to go around
the Earth.
Relate the length of a day to the
rotation of the Earth about its axis
and the length of a year to the
movement of the Earth around the
Sun.

b) recognise that the Sun is a star that gives out light.
c) recognise that the Moon and planets in the Solar System
do not give out light but are seen by reflected light.
d) show an awareness that there is regularity in the
movements of the Earth and the Moon.



e) list some uses of man-made satellites.



For example: communication, space
exploration and observations of
weather patterns.

f) show an understanding that a cell is a single unit of life.



Examples of single cell organisms:
bacteria, yeast, paramecium.

g) identify the different parts of a plant cell and relate the • parts to the functions:
• cell wall
• cell membrane
• cytoplasm
• nucleus
• chloroplast.

Examine plant cells under the
microscope. Use prepared slides of
plant cells or mount onion epidermal /
Elodea on slides.

28

Learning Outcomes

Remarks

h) Identify the different parts of an animal cell and relate the • parts to the functions:
• cell membrane
• cytoplasm
• nucleus.

Examine animal cells under the
microscope. Use prepared slides of
animal cells or mount cheek cells on
slides.

i) Show an understanding that a cell divides to produce new
cells and that this division is necessary for an organism to grow.



Observe the budding of yeast under
the microscope. Details of cell
division are not required.

j) show an understanding that living things reproduce to
ensure continuity of their kind and that many
characteristics of an organism are passed on from parents
to offspring.



Give examples of genetic traits such
as:
- tongue rolling
- attached / detached ear lobes.

k) investigate and compare the various ways in which plants
reproduce i.e. by spores, seeds, and from other plant
parts such as underground stems, suckers and leaves.



Pupils do not have to distinguish
between different types of
underground stems.

l) name the following processes in the sexual reproduction
of flowering plants: pollination, fertilisation (seed
production), seed dispersal and germination.



Pupils are not expected to give
detailed descriptions of the
processes but should know the
sequence of events.



lever, pulley, wheel and axle,
inclined plane, gears.

m) recognise that in many animals, including humans,
females produce eggs and males produce sperms and
when an egg and a sperm fuse, a new individual is
formed.
INTERACTIONS
a) identify a force as a push or a pull.
b) list some simple machines.

29

Learning Outcomes
c) manipulate these simple machines to determine their
characteristics and uses.

Remarks





Pupils are to develop concepts and
understanding through manipulation
and play.
They are not expected to memorise
these characteristics but ought to
develop an understanding that each
one makes work easier to do by:
i. providing some trade-off between
the force applied and the distance
over which the force is applied.
ii. changing the direction of the
applied force
iii. changing the speed and/or
direction of rotation.
Introduce the idea that examples of
levers can be found in the interaction
of the skeletal and muscular
systems. The muscles provide the
forces for the movement of the
bones. One such example can be
found in the arm.

SYSTEMS
a) recognise that an electric circuit consisting of a power
source and other circuit components forms an electrical
system.
b) recognise that a current can only flow through a closed
circuit.



Components of electric circuits are:
dry cells, wires, bulbs, switches.



Pupils should be able to trace the
path of current flow in a closed
circuit.



Restrict components to batteries,
wires, switches and bulbs.
Symbols representing circuit
components can be used.

c) recognise that
- a battery provides energy in a closed circuit
- current transports energy from the battery to the bulb.
d) use a switch to break or close a circuit.
e) construct simple circuits from circuit diagrams.



30

Learning Outcomes
f) infer that components of an electrical system affect one
another.

Remarks




Pupils are to:
infer that the current affects the
brightness of bulbs
investigate the effect of some
variables on the current in a circuit.
These variables to be investigated
are:
- number of batteries
- number of bulbs
- arrangement of batteries.

g) identify electrical conductors and electrical insulators.



Examples:
Conductors: metals
Insulators: wood, plastic, rubber
(Comparison of ability to conduct
electric current within each group is
not required).

h) show an awareness of the need for proper use and
handling of electricity.



Example:
Touching switches with wet hands
may cause nasty electrical shock.

i) show an awareness of the need to conserve electrical
energy.



Briefly mention that the energy
resources used to generate
electricity come from fuels which are
exhaustible. NE can be incorporated
here. Topic is covered in depth at
lower secondary level.
Pupils should be encouraged to
demonstrate ways to conserve
electrical energy in school and at
home.
Pupils should gather, organise and
interpret data on electrical energy
use at home and in school.





ENERGY
a) show an understanding that water, light energy and
carbon dioxide are needed for photosynthesis and sugar
and oxygen are produced.
b) show an understanding that food produced by plants
becomes the source of energy for animals.

31

LEARNING OUTCOMES
PRIMARY 6 EM3
Learning Outcomes

Remarks

Pupils should be able to:
DIVERSITY
a) show an awareness that materials as well as organisms
can be grouped based on their properties or
characteristics.
b) classify some common materials.







c) relate the properties of the materials to their use.

Although pupils may also classify
materials based on criteria like colour
and texture, teachers should also direct
pupils to classify materials based on the
following criteria:
their degree of transparency to light
whether they are magnetic or nonmagnetic
whether they are good or bad heat
conductors
whether they are electrical conductors
or electrical insulators.



Properties include those covered at P3
as well as the degree of transparency
to light, magnetic, electrical and thermal
properties.



The forms of energy are:
kinetic energy, potential energy, light
energy, electrical energy, sound
energy, heat energy.
Examples of potential energy include
gravitational energy and chemical
energy.

ENERGY
a) recognise and give examples of the various forms of
energy.



32

Learning Outcomes
b) show an understanding that energy can be converted
from one form to another.

Remarks




Examples include:
photosynthesis - light energy is
converted to chemical energy
chemical energy in a dry cell in a
closed circuit is converted to electrical
energy which in turn is converted to
light and heat energy in the filament
bulb.

INTERACTIONS
a) recognise and give examples of the different types of
force.



Types are: gravitational force, elastic
spring force, frictional force and
magnetic force.

b) recognise that friction is a force that opposes motion.
c) recognise that when springs are stretched or
compressed, they exert a force on whatever is stretching
or compressing them.
d) recognise that objects have weight because of the
gravitational force between them and the Earth.
e) recognise that magnets can exert forces of attraction and • repulsion.


f)

describe the effects of a force.





Magnets exert forces of attraction on
magnetic materials like iron.
Like poles of magnets exert a force of
repulsion on each other while unlike
poles exert a force of attraction on each
other.
Effects are:
A force can speed up, slow down or
change the direction of motion.
A force may change the shape of
objects.

g) observe and describe the characteristics of a local
environment.



Pupils could use sensors and
dataloggers to study the physical
characteristics of the environment.

h) identify the following factors that affect the survival of an organism :
- the physical characteristics of the environment
- availability of food
- types of other organisms present.



Pupils should have experiences in
building and maintaining terraria or
aquaria.

i)



trace the energy pathway from the sun through living
things and identify the roles of various organisms in a

Pupils are expected to show an
understanding of

33

Learning Outcomes

Remarks

food chain and a food web.


j)

differentiate among the terms organism, population,
community.

k) show an understanding that different habitats support
different communities.

Key points are:
An organism is a living thing

• A population is defined as a group of
plants and animals of the same kind,
living and reproducing at a given place
and time
• A community consists of many
populations living together in a
particular place.



l)

give examples of man’s impact (both positive and
negative) on the environment.

m) show an awareness that man creates materials to meet
technological needs of society.

- the roles of producers, consumers,
decomposers
- predator- prey relationship
Decomposers obtain their food by
breaking down dead plants and
animals.

Pupils should go on field trips to
explore a variety of environments. NE
can be incorporated here.
Pupils should infer that the place
where populations find all the things
they need to live and reproduce is
their habitat e.g. garden, field, pond,
seashore, tree.

Examples are:

- indiscriminate actions by man lead to the
destruction of the environment e.g.
deforestation
- local examples of how man can
improve the environment e.g. greening
of Singapore (NE can be incorporated
here).


n) show an awareness that the development of science and • technology affects the environment.

Some man-made materials: alloys,
plastics, ceramics.
Pupils are to compare the
environmental impact of using natural
and man-made materials and suggest
ways to prevent pollution.

34

GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Term

Description of meaning

1.

classify

to group things based on common characteristics

2.

compare

to identify similarities and differences between objects, concepts or processes

3.

describe

to state in words (using diagrams where appropriate) the main points of a topic

4.

differentiate

to identify the differences between objects, concepts or processes

5.

identify

to select and/or name the object, event, concept or process

6.

infer

to draw a conclusion based on observations

7.

investigate

to find out by carrying out experiments

8.

list

to give a number of points or items without elaboration

9.

recognise

to identify facts, characteristics or concepts that are critical to the understanding of a situation, event, process or phenomenon

10.

relate

to identify and explain the relationships between objects, concepts or processes

11.

show an
appreciation
show an
understanding

to recognise and explain the significance of a concept or a situation

state

to give a concise answer with little or no supporting argument

12.

13.

to recall information (facts, concepts, models, data), translate information from one form to another, explain information and summarise information

35

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