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Topics: Evolution, Genetics, Allele frequency Pages: 3 (641 words) Published: October 16, 2013

Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

One of the most difficult concepts to understand about the process of evolution is how changes in the genetic composition of a population affect the phenotypic composition of a population, and how both ultimately act to allow evolution of the species. Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution emphasizes that populations, not individuals, evolve. The purpose of my experiment was to test the allele and genotype frequencies. Alleles for a gene are represented by letters of the alphabet. The theory of Hardy-Weinberg states that an allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolution. How to use and understand the punett square. Also, they created a mathematical model which explains five assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg theory. The theory states that there are no random mating, no mutation, no natural selection, no gene flow and large breeding population. The principle describes an ideal condition against which the effects of their influences can be analyzed. The null hypothesis I tested was the default statement that you are not going to see any changes in. When two organisms with heterozygous genotypes (Aa) mate, the recombination of their genes can be illustrated on a Punnett Square (figure 1).

Sperm
A allele
Sperm
a allele
Egg
A allele
AA
Aa
Egg
a allele
Aa
aa
Genetic combinations possible for a single gene from the mating of two heterogyous organisms. By convention the dominant allele is always written first. The five assumptions of the Hardy- Weinberg Theory are:

1. There are no genetic mutations occurring in the population. 2. There is no gene flow
3. There is no gene drift
4. Reproduction is random
5. There is no natural selection occurring
The original proportions of the genotypes in a population will remain constant from generation as long as the five assumptions are met.

Methods
I...


Cited: Members of the Biology Program Faculty. “Biodiversity & Evolution Lab Manual,”2011 Print
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