Science Grade 10 Exam Review

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SCIENCE EXAM NOTES
Organ Systems
CELL
- Cell Membrane : surrounds the cytoplasm in the plant cell and surrounds the cell in the animal cell
- Cell Wall : surrounds Cell
- Chloroplast : type of organelle in the plant cell ; Conducts photosynthesis
- Golgi Apparatus : modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the cellular endoplasmic reticulum
- Mitochondrion : produces energy
- Nucleus : regulates all cell activity
- Nucleolus : contains the DNA of a cell
- Vacuole : the storage area, stores good and bad things
CELL CYCLE
Define
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-
-
-
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- Chromosome : Is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells
- Chromatids : Is one of the two copies of DNA making up a duplicated chromosome, which are joined at their centromeres, for the process of cell division

Stages of Mitosis + Cell Division

1st : INTERPHASE
- Chromosomes are copies (# doubles)
- Chromosomes appear as threadlike coils (chromatin) at the start, but each chromosome and it’s copy (sister chromosome) change to sister chromatids at end of this phase
2nd : PROPHASE
- Mitosis begins (cell begins to divide)
- Centrioles (or poles) appear and begin to move to opposite ends of cell
- Spindle fibers form between the poles
3rd : METAPHASE
- Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) attach to the spindle fibers
4th : ANAPHASE
- Chromatids (or pairs of chromosomes) separate and begin to move to opposite ends of the cell
5th: TELOPHASE
- Two new nuclei form
- Chromosomes appear as chromatin (threads rather than rods)
- Mitosis ends
6th: CYTOKINESIS
- Cell membrane moves inward to create two daughter cells – each with its own nucleus with identical chromosomes

TISSUES

- Tissue : Any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.
Types of animal tissues = Muscular, Blood, Connective, Epithelial, Nerve
Types of plant tissues in a leaf =

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