Science Fair Project Example
ABSTRACT There are many different substances that affect the freezing and boiling points of water. This experiment was designed to test the effects of five liquid and five solid substances/mixtures on the freezing and boiling points of water. It was hypothesized that if we tested five liquid and five solid substances/mixtures then the results would show that the solids would have a greater affect. Using these guidelines the experimentation was completed and the data was recorded. It was determined that the hypothesis was supported. Salt had by far the greatest effect on the freezing and boiling point. Baking soda had the next greatest effect but still had almost a 50% smaller effect than salt. The rest of the data showed that the hypothesis was supported because the solid substances had the greatest effect by far with few exceptions. From this experiment it can be concluded that when changing the freezing and boiling point of water, salt is still the best option although other substances/mixtures like Baking Soda, Sugar, and Molasses can still be effective.
INTRODUCTION The boiling and freezing points of water are well known. The boiling point being 100 degrees Celsius and the freezing point being zero degrees Celsius. However there are ways this can be changed by adding new matter to the water. One of the most common substances used to change the freezing and boiling point of water is by adding salt. (Michael Allaby talks about this) Salt is the reason ocean water can be so cold and still not freeze. This is also why road salt is commonly used to melt ice. This also works in reverse. Salt can be used to raise the boiling point of water. One reason you would want to raise the boiling point of water is to be able to cook at higher temperatures as Lori Alden states. It is well known that salt can be used to change the boiling and freezing point of water
Bibliography: Administrator, N. (2009, november 29). Boiling point of water. Retrieved from http://www.sciencefair-projects.org/chemistry-projects/boiling-point-of-water.html Alden Lori, L. A. (2005, april 01). Salt. Retrieved from http://www.foodsubs.com/Salt.html Heidorn Keith, K. H. (2001, December 1). [Web log message]. Retrieved from www.islandnet.com/see/weather/life/coldimpacts.html Allaby Michael, M. A. (2011, October 23). Freezing water and melting ice. Retrieved from 0-www.fofweb.com.dsl.starklibrary.org/science Naik Abhijit, A. N. (2010, December 14). Freezing point of salt water. Retrieved from www.buzzle.com/articles/freezingpoint-of-salt-water.html/ Monwuhea Jeng, J. M. (1998, November 00). Can hot water freeze faster than cold water?. Retrieved from math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/general/hot_water.html Helmenstine Anne, A. H. (2012, Febuary 19). What is the freezing point of water?. Retrieved from http://chemistry.about.com/od/waterchemistry/f/freezing-point-of-water.htm Nave R, R. N. (2005, June 27). Freezing point depression in solutions. Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/meltpt.html Willis Bill. (2009, November 08). Salt and the freezing point of water. Retrieved from http://www.worsleyschool.net/science/files/saltandfreezing/ofwater.html Bradley David, D. B. (2009, Febuary 2). Salt lowers the freezing point of water. Retrieved from http://www.sciencebase.com/science-blog/salt-lowers-freezing-point-of-water.html