Jean-Luc Fernandez 9.4
The start of the atom.
The atom is the basic unit of matter and all life. The history of the study of the atomic nature of matter is the thinking process that goes on in the scientist’s heads. Further progress in the understanding of atoms did not occur until very famous scientist created the atomic theory. Here are some scientists who changed the way we learn about the atom, and the atomic nature of all life.
Ernest Rutherford was another scientist that changed the atomic model. Rutherford was studding physics up until his junior years of schooling and since then he had an interest in it. Rutherford was born on the 30 August 1871 in New Zealand. Rutherford was investigating physics everyday he tried lots of experiments.
Rutherford showed that gamma rays were a type of X-ray, and that the alpha and beta rays were tiny particles of matter. Rutherford then showed that the beta particles were electrons.
In 1908 Rutherford demonstrated and made an airtight glass tube with very thin walls, and filled it with the radioactive radium emanation. Alpha particles could penetrate the thin walls of the tube and were collected in a second tube. Rutherford was then inspired to investigate more into Alpha Particles.
Rutherford then began using alpha particles to investigate further into other elements. His theory was if a lot of alpha particles were fired into another substance, it would be then ‘bounced’ off in other directions. Rutherford mentioned his theory to his students and to his surprise a student named Ernest Marsden found out that they bounce off at large angles anywhere.
Between 1914 and 1918 (during WW1) Rutherford worked on theories about finding the enemy submarines, while continuing his own investigations of the nucleus and alpha particles. At this time Rutherford was being well known. Just before the breakout of the war he received knight hood from King George V. In that society not many people too much attention to physics or anything science. When Rutherford found out where to locate the submarines he became more popular and more and more people started to follow his journey.
In 1919, a few months after the war ended, Rutherford showed that by firing alpha particles into nitrogen gas a small amount of hydrogen could be produced. This was the first artificial disintegration of a nucleus.
Rutherford was inspired to investigate in the atomic theory. He felt that J.J. Thomson's ‘Plum Pudding’ model was incorrect, so he created a new one. This model influenced one of his own students to perfect the atomic model later on. So Rutherford ‘Gold Foil’ model was famous in his own ways. He described his atomic theory as having positive nucleus (in the middle of the atom) surrounded by negative electrons orbiting around the atom.
Rutherford atomic theory changed the way we look at atoms and how electrons move around the nuclei.
John Dalton did not have much early life. All there is needed to know is that he was incredibly intelligent and through his interests in chemistry, meteorology and physics straight from the start you knew Dalton was going to have an impact on our atomic theory.
From Dalton’s interests and studies on meteorology, Dalton would experiment temperatures and gases and liquid therefore conducting a theory that evaporated water exists in air as an independent gas. He tested how water and air could occupy the same space at the same time, when obviously solids can’t do that. Dalton reasoned, evaporation might be viewed as a mixing of water particles with air particles. He performed a series of experiments on mixtures of gases to determine what effect properties of the individual gases had on the properties of the mixture as a whole. While trying to explain the results of those experiments, Dalton developed the hypothesis that the sizes of the particles making up different gases must be different....
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