Sci 230 Week 1 Checkpoint Theories of Biology

Topics: Life, Biology, Organism Pages: 2 (434 words) Published: August 26, 2013
SCI 230 Week 1 Checkpoint Theories of Biology.doc

The Major Theories of Biology

Evolution by natural selection: This theory came about as a result of Charles Darwin trying to find an explanation for “why there are so many different living beings on earth?” (Pruitt, N. L., & Underwood, L. S. (2006). His theory contains two parts, the first part states that species change over generations. The second part states that what causes this change is natural selection. Inheritance: This is another theory by Gregor Mendel. He was trying to answer the question, “How are traits from parents inherited by offspring?” (Pruitt, N. L., & Underwood, L. S. (2006). He experimented with pea plants and observed that traits are passed on from parent to offspring by what we now know as genes and believed that this held true for all living things. Cells: This theory proposed by Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. They stated that all living things are made up of cells and that cells come from cells that already exist. “They realized that the cell was the smallest unit capable of exhibiting all of the characteristics of life.” (Pruitt, N. L., & Underwood, L. S. (2006). Biological Classification: Carolus Linneaus classified living organisms by their similarities and differences. This was later changed to classifying them by evolutionary relatedness due to Charles Darwin’s theory mentioned above. Bioenergetics: Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier conducted experiments which showed that life energy operated the same as inanimate energy. One of the most important things to come from these experiments was the finding of chemical reactions in cells. Homeostasis: Claude Bernard found that organisms try to maintain a constant environment and that it is in this environment they function best. Ecosystems: Every living thing interacts with each other and its environment. They do not live along but in communities with...

References: Pruitt, N. L., & Underwood, L. S. (2006). Bioinquiry: Making connections in biology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. “Desert dust changing ecosystems in the San Juans.” Retrieved on August 21, 2009.
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