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School and Teacher Education

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DETA conference abstracts 2013

Speakers’ presentations
Note: All the papers and presentations have been posted as received from the authors. The DETA Secretariat takes no responsibility for their format, language and content.
The list has been arranged per stream and alphabetically based on the surname of the first author.

Stream 1: The role of collaboration and partnerships in teacher education and development in Africa Collaboration and partnerships in basic education programmes in University of Cape Coast: A reflection The Teacher Education in sub-Saharan African programme (TESSA): Evolving, extending, embedding Collaborative teaching of Mathematics in the university: Prospective teachers’ perceived pedagogical benefits Drama-in-education across boarders: The NMMU/OLDENBURG (Germany) partnership for teacher development Guiding international partners for project initiated and sustained transformational change in DRC protestant schools The experiences of MGSLG as a training agency for Gauteng Department of Education Role of collaboration and partnership in teacher education and development in tertiary institutions in Nigeria Lessons learned from working with local partners in the Malawi access to teaching scholarship programme Peer collaboration as a strategy for professional teacher development


Abreh MK & Kutor NK
Anamuah-Mensah J & Cullen J
Amihere AK & Adzifome NS
Athiemoolam L
Brettenny G
Debeila B
Ezema PN & Eze SI
Gallastegi L & Chistulo J
Izuagba AC, Afurobi AO, &
Ezenwa PCN
Education and change: Collaborative partnership in a local school community in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa James S & Wilmot D
Quality education a pre-requisite for development: The contribution of TESSA to teacher education in Uganda Kaije D
The role of international collaboration and partnerships in teacher education and development in Africa: Case study Kibuka-Sebitosi E of the Education for Sustainable Development
A collaboration project between Department of Basic Education & British Council to offer primary English teaching Mahomed H in South African schools
The role of collaboration and partnerships in teacher education and development in Africa Mbwette T
The role of collaboration and partnership in teacher education and development in Africa Mutoro JM & Imonje R
Ghanaian junior high school teachers’ reflections on the use of TESSA secondary school science modules Ngman-Wara E & Acquah S
Collaborative partnerships: Universities and schools working with shared vision Opolot-Okurut C & Bbuye J
Implementing TESSA secondary science: Learning from the experience and the implications for partnership Stutchbury K, Ngman-Wara E
& Acquah S


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DETA conference abstracts 2013

Stream 2: Equipping African teachers to develop their learners as critical citizens in a digital world (ICTs in teacher education)
The teachers and the use of ICT for professional development in Botswana The Aprelia e-twinning, exemplifying collaboration and partnership in teacher education and development in Africa Open and educational resources and the issue of educational justice: paradoxes OER on teacher training and in open educational practice

Redemption of sharing in teacher education: Case studies from OER inspired projects Developing critical minds for sustainable development: The role of teachers Assessment of integration of ICT as teaching-learning tool in primary school teacher training curriculum in Kenya ICT use in Mathematics instruction: Implication for professional development of pre-service teachers


Adu E & Eze IR
Agbogan KR
Aluko R
Amani IA & Mohammmed AI
Auckloo P
Honoratha M & Muganda C
Kanorio KF
Kosgei A, Agalo J &
Wanyala MM
The application of E-learning in teacher education at the Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa: Litheko SR Lessons for the sub-Saharan Africa
Harnessing Open Educational Resources in teacher education in Zimbabwe: The case of Zimbabwe Open Makamure C
Continuous professional development: The missing link in integration of ICTs into the curriculum in Kenya Mukuna TE & Mutsotso SN
Motivating features of E-learning for teachers: Relevance of findings from Vietnam for South Africa Nzutha LM & Lambrecht H
Using OER to design an online course on academic research writing: The good, the bad and the ugly Omidire MF
Application of end-user preferences to developing competencies for learning communities’ membership in Africa Saah AA


Stream 3: Standards and quality assurance in teacher education and development in Africa


Standards and quality assurance in teacher education in Kenya: A case of teaching Kiswahili at Maasai Mara University, Narok, Kenya
Mentorship as a tool for quality assurance in teacher education: The case of Zambia Improving examinee performance in high stakes examinations through teacher professional development in assessment

The road to quality inclusive teacher education for the 21st Century Raging controversy in teacher preparation programs: The issue of who should prepare and how should teacher be prepared
Recovering quality: changing a dysfunctional world – a report on systems and school change in Nigeria

Ayodi NK


Banja M
Chakwera EWJ


Chigunwe G & Tsitsi G
Kafu P


Kay J, Osuntusa A &
Oyeneye O
Ladan AS


Matoti SN


Quality assurance mechanisms in open and distance education: The experience of National Teachers’ Institute, Kaduna, Nigeria
Monitoring pre-service teachers: How student-teachers perceive their interactions with school mentors DETA

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DETA conference abstracts 2013

In pursuit of quality and relevance in teacher education and development in Africa: A Zimbabwean Perspective Preparedness of the quality assurance and standards officers in promoting quality and standards in teacher education programs in Kenya

Promoting teacher education standards and quality assurance: The role of teacher regulatory authorities in Africa The relationship between perceived quality dimensions & growth in distance education Successful science education in Africa: How to enhance and sustain teacher effectiveness What is basic? Post graduate initial development of foundation phase teachers in South Africa Stream 4: Models, practices or experiences in the use of distance education for teacher education and development in Africa

Assessing the teaching practice concept for distance learning teachers: The case of CCE, UCC Challenges and opportunities in using the theological education by extension model in training pastors in Shona independent churches in Zimbabwe

Distance education: Meeting development and labour market needs in post-apartheid South Africa Bridging the gap between teacher education and practice: Our experience on teacher professional development Exploring ODL students’ self-regulated learning and metacognitive skills: Implications for instruction Teaching literacy for foundation phase through distance education: Perspectives of first-time distance education lecturers

Twists and turns in selecting an appropriate open and distance learning model for the provision of teacher education: The experiences of Botswana
Workforce flexibility in distance education: Norm or exception? The role of academic libraries in supporting distance education in Kenya Metaphysical harmony in pedagogical enterprise: Speculation on teacher-parent partnership in educating autistic learners

Challenges associated with teaching practice for distance learners at University of Cape Coast Curriculum adaptation on supporting learners with reading difficulties: Teacher education Taking education to the people - Models and practices used by Catholic University, Mozambique The perceived relevance of Literature in English in the context of subject competition in Lesotho’s curriculum: the case of five teacher trainees

Assessing barriers to effective completion of a professional development qualification: A case of ACE: SNE programme
The role of the distance education group leader at distance education contact sessions DETA

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Muwandi JN, Sibanda M,
Zendah TJ, Mutseekwa C &
Zendah K Mutare
Nasimiyu GN


Nkuba M
Nzuki P
Oyoo S
Verbeek C





Ampofo SY & Kumedzro FK
Chimininge V


Diko N
Gaceri P & Jepchumba L
Geduld B
Joubert I, Phatudi N &
Ledwaba RG
Kamau JW


Kidombo HJ, Gakuu CM &
Bowa O
Kilemba L
K’Odhimbo AK


Kumedzro FK & Ampofo
Ledwaba RG & Mampane MR
Machacha W & DwomohTweneboah M
Mahao M


Mampane MR, Loots T &
Oelofsen M
Mampane S






DETA conference abstracts 2013

A comparative analysis of teaching practice performance of distance and on-campus BEd (Science) students at the University of Nairobi, Kenya
Awareness as a determinant of educational managers’ support for distance learning mode of delivery: The case of Western Region, Kenya
Sustainability of a holistic support strategy for distance programmes at colleges of education in Zambia Factors associated with teachers’ motivation and commitment to teach in Tanzania A community college in the making: A case study of Mercy Winterveldt Adult Education & Training Centre Teachers’ perceptions on the use of situated cognition: Implications for instructional design for indigenous knowledge

Teachers’ concerns in the implementation of Strengthening of Mathematics and Science Secondary Education (SMASSE) innovation
Mentoring: An essential ingredient in teachers’ preparation? Perspectives from Tanzania A comparative study of the causes of test anxiety among first and final year students in the Faculty of Education at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana

Practice of open and distance learning in teacher education in selected institutions in Kenya Practice of distance education at the Centre for Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi Barriers to learning during a contact session as perceived by distance students of Advanced Certificate in Education Management, University of Pretoria

Science-culture impact on the environmental education component of the Nigerian social studies teacher education program
Learning in mother tongue: An examination of language preferences in South Africa Keeping the teacher in focus: a challenge for subject content specialists as designers of distance learning materials Experiences in the use of distance education and development in Africa: A case of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN)

Teacher development at a distance: The pros and the cons

Mboroki G & Wambugu L


Mbugua J, Bowa O, Gakuu CM
& Mboroki G
Meijerink L & Mwewa B
Mkumbo K
Mokwena GK & Prof QuanBaffour KP
Mukwambo M & Zulu M


Ndirangu C & Nyagah G


Ngalomba P
Ocansey S & Gyimah EK


Odumbe JO
Odumbe JO & Misiko WC
Ogina T


Ojedokun OE


Phindane P
Reed Y & Sibomana
Salawu IO


Tarusikirwa MC



Stream 5: Leadership and management development for African schooling in the 21st century


Challenges faced by South African heads of department regarding their roles and responsibilities Gender factor in decision-making: Challenges facing women leadership development in primary schools’ management in Kenya

Leadership and management development for African schooling in the 21st Century Importance of early childhood years experiences on later years’ psychosocial development: Lesson from a primary school in Ghana

The impact of distance in the relationship between the principal and teachers in schools

Bipath K & Nkabinde B
Choge JR, Serem DK &
Kindiki J
Ezema CI
Gyimah EK & Amponsah MO


Mahlangu V &Mohlakwana M



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DETA conference abstracts 2013

The banning of corporal punishment in South African township schools: Problem or solution? Learning to lead and manage schools through hands-on school practicum experiences Transformational leadership skills: A necessary recipe for school principals in the 21st Century School leadership training, a motivating factor contributing to the provision of highly motivated and competent teachers for Africa

Motseke M
Mwingi M
Ndiritu A, Kimani G, Gikonyo N
& Kidombo H
Rudasingwa E


List of poster presenters
Poster presentations


Teachers’ responses to issues in bilingual school settings: A comparison between schools in Tanzania and Brazil Teacher education paradox in Africa: Is it confusion or crisis in the programme? Nature and effect of collaboration in training ODL teacher-trainees in Malawi: The case of literacy instruction Critical evaluation of quality assurance instrument in ACE programs in the ODL mode Protective role of female teachers’ on refugee girls attending secondary education in Daadab and Kakuma Utilization of Open and Distance Learning in addressing educational challenges of Kenya’s vision 2030 initiatives Blended learning for teachers’ professional development in a challenging context of Kenya The development of a Physical Education assessment model for teachers in rural areas Analyzing scaffolding from not knowing to knowing numbers and counting: Classroom conversations in the teaching of numeracy

Modelling teacher development through distance education: Experiences from Zimbabwe

Antunes J
Kafu P
Kapito P
Mampane M & Mahlangu VP
Ndirangu C
Odumbe JO & Misiko WC
Onguko BB
Riekert M
Setlalentoa W


Tarusikirwa MC



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DETA conference abstracts 2013

Might Kojo Abreh
Senior Research Assistant
Institute of Education
University of Cape Coast
Cape Coast, Ghana
Nicholas Koku Kutor
Senior Lecturer
Institute of Education
University of Cape Coast
Cape Coast, Ghana

The role of collaboration and partnerships
in teacher education and development in

The 20th century did not live to see multiple tracks in teacher professional development as evidenced by training routes available for basic school teachers in Ghana today. Traditionally, teachers had to leave the classroom to be able to take part in further academic development in orthodox university study setting where students and course participants are expected to be available in-person for studies. That resulted in teacher attrition and also did culminate in economic setback for the state purse. This study observed what happens nowadays in teacher professional development as further education for in-service teachers’ follow trajectories that are diverse in nature but focused on the same primary ambit of professional development. DETA

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Thus in the 21st century the same training outcomes that are expected for on-site university training are overtly available to teachers through sandwich, distance education, evening classes’ trails as well as the known traditional on-site setting. This article reveals that the covert side of the professional development needs of the 21st century teachers which hinges on collaborations and partnerships that are fostered or otherwise expected to be nurtured to allow for free running of all tracks of first degree programmes in basic education offered by the University of Cape Coast. Using different shades of the survey design to pull up data it became apparent that, school management, communities, directorate of education and universities play a key role in collaboration and partnership of the same programme using multiple tracks. Although it is appreciated that collaboration and partnerships happens at differing depths and extents, this study uses data for only a university and for only one of its programme lines which has four tracks. Its conclusions and recommendations are worth considering especially for institutions in similar context. Presentation of this paper is scheduled for an average of twenty (20) minutes. There will be need for a projector; and there will be need for microphone if there is estimated number of audiences beyond the radius of two meters relative to the speaker.

Jophus Anamuah-Mensah
TESSA Executive Chair
Jane Cullen
TESSA Director
+44 01223 584667
Since its inception in 2005, TESSA has been closely associated with primary education. The TESSA resources were created by the TESSA community (a partnership of universities and educational organisations across Africa) to improve the quality of the teacher education of primary teachers in universities and teacher training colleges, and to develop in student teachers and teacher educators an understanding of the practical skills involved in good quality teaching. This original ambition – to improve the quality of primary school teacher education - was of course heavily influenced by the MDG goals and the success in the early part of the 21st century in increasing access to primary education in many countries across Africa. Notwithstanding the continued challenges in providing children with good primary teaching, the focus is shifting. Globally, the world is looking to its new agenda post-2015. In Africa there is recognition of the successes of the UPE agenda and a realisation that there are other related challenges which have either been relatively neglected, or which are now coming to prominence directly as a result of the success DETA

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of UPE. The TESSA community through its partnership activities is now turning its attention to secondary education and to Early Years education. The focus on secondary education is inevitable: hundreds of thousands more young people are successfully navigating primary school and ‘knocking on the doors’ of secondary school. and this raises concerns about the current quality of secondary school teaching. And there is a widespread concern among countries across Africa that by primary age, some children are already struggling to keep up with their peers because they have not had access to good quality preprimary education. In addition there is recognition that teacher education through university or teacher training college cannot keep pace with the numbers needed for teaching, and that in-school professional development for teachers and programmes for para-teachers and teaching assistants are also important for the quality of classroom teaching.

In this paper, we explore the ways in which TESSA is evolving and how new collaborations and partnerships are important to the development of TESSA.

Ahmed Kobina Amihere
Department of Basic Education,
Nixon Saba Adzifome
University of Education, Winneba
We report on collaboration between a regular lecturer and a visiting lecturer (pursing a Ph. D in the USA) who taught an approved 3-credithour mathematics course using a blended team teaching approach for a full semester of 16 weeks in a Ghanaian public university. This was to find out the prospective teachers’ perceptions of the pedagogical benefits of team teaching in a public university that runs, among many others, a generalist program in basic education. The question we sought to answer was: “What are the prospective teachers’ perceived pedagogical benefits of team teaching of Mathematics in the university? The population for the study consisted of 203 third -year prospective teachers who were preparing for a full semester of internship. Forty (40) of these were sampled using systematic random sampling technique. They responded to openended questionnaires. Out of the 40 respondents, 10 were engaged in a focused group interview to deepen understanding of emerging issues. The mixed methods approach adopted enabled the analysis of data to be done quantitatively and qualitatively. It emerged from the analysis of both questionnaire and interview data that team teaching, among others, promoted students’ interaction with teachers; increased support given to students; engendered the use DETA

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of variety of teaching strategies and promoted students conceptual understanding of mathematics. However, in terms of challenges, prospective teachers identified relatively high levels of partner teacher interruptions and time management concerns. Based on the findings we recommend its use in university setting while enjoining future collaborators to do effective planning to reduce interruptions and to manage time more effectively.

Logamurthie Athiemoolam
Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
041/4575519 (H) 041/5042367 (W) 0769304556 ©
This paper focuses on a partnership between the NMMU (Port
Elizabeth) and the University of Oldenburg (Germany) in the field of drama-in-education for the purposes of teacher development. The collaborative partnership which spans a period of 9 years since the establishment of the NMMU focuses on the enhancement of skills development in the field of drama-in-education amongst lecturers and both pre- and in-service teachers in the Nelson Mandela Metropole. Since 2004 trainers from Germany have been visiting the NMMU to promote drama-in-education amongst both in and pre-service teachers. During their visits to the university drama facilitators present short programmes to Faculty of Education members of staff and both in- and pre-service teachers.

Workshops are presented to teachers as part of a skills development programme for in-service teachers in the field of drama-in-education. These teachers are taught the basics in the field, encouraged to experiment with such approaches in their classes and to provide feedback. The workshops presented to teachers have been a huge success and the participants look forward to the visits by drama facilitators annually. Teachers are encouraged to experiment with drama-in-education in their classes and to report back to the facilitators on some of the challenges that they experience when implementing such approaches in their classes.


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As part of the pre-service teacher initiatives university students are invited to participate in workshops and to provide feedback on their experiences. The drama instructors also visit specific university classes where drama-in-education is being implemented and provide guidance and support to both students and lecturers. An important component of the programme is the opportunity for lecturers and inservice teachers from Port Elizabeth to visit Oldenburg (Germany) where they are afforded opportunities to participate in drama-ineducation activities at university, school and community levels. In order to ensure that there is a balance in the programme lecturers from the NMMU are also invited to present workshops to students at the University of Oldenburg.

During their visits to the Metropole the drama facilitators also visit drama- in- education community initiatives in the previously disadvantaged townships and schools and provide encouragement and support to interested groups. Since a number of the in-service teachers and community drama groups in the Nelson Mandela

Metropole have demonstrated a keen interest in drama-in-education and have articulated their commitment to the implementation of this strategy in their classes, the German facilitators are very motivated to visit the University annually to present the workshops. Currently the partners from both universities have embarked on a joint initiative which will lead to the publication of a book in the field of dramain-education involving the experiences of participants from both institutions.

The success of the partnership could be attributed to the dedication and commitment of the role players from both the NMMU and the University of Oldenburg in Germany and the ongoing engagement of the partners with interested groups across all levels of society including lecturers, in-service teachers, students and community groups. This is an example of a very effective, well-functioning collaborative partnership as there are always teachers, students and faculty members moving across the two institutions with a view to the promotion of drama- in- education across both the Nelson Mandela Metropole and Oldenburg.

Gavin Brettenny
Association of Christian Schools International
027 41 3684781
The Elephant Project is a collaborative effort between the USA based global Association of Christian Schools International (ACSI) and the Protestant Church in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The project’s long term goal is empowerment of partners in the DRC for sustained transformation of eighteen thousand four hundred and fifty six K-12 Protestant schools, comprising approximately five and a half million children. This research presupposes that the developed world too easily creates sustained dependency by assuming a change process based on developed world resources and presuppositions, thereby excluding project integration of developing world resources and presuppositions. A naive approach to intervention for organisational change in the developing world can easily result in project failure and disillusionment amongst partnering members and sponsors.

This research identifies and investigates variables considered significant to partnership between organisations from the developed and developing world for project initiated transformational change. Sirken, Keenan and Jackson reference studies showing “ . . . that in most organisations, two out of three transformation initiatives

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fail”1. Exacerbating project failure opportunities for transformational change is the confluence of factors such as project initiated change dynamics, project magnitude, the particularities of school based transformation in developing countries, the dynamics of cross– cultural partnership including language limitations and inappropriate use of developed world resources such as capital, knowledge and culture.

is recommended, allowing local interpretation and leadership of process. Collaborative action research complements the goal
of transformational change because the researcher promotes
knowledge and change in a manner “ . . . that pursues the analysis from the insiders’ experience of their reality, instead of imposing the culturally determined preconceptions of the researcher”2.

Referencing field research of a similar project in Rwanda and literature research, this paper identifies significant variables and makes recommendations considered integral to framing best practice for developed and developing world project partnerships for school based transformational change. Although the Elephant project is the case in point, the research has general relevance to international project partnerships requiring knowledge of variables associated with cross-national and cross-cultural projects. These variables include organisational culture, global leadership intelligence, change management, leadership and followership styles and communication in the global village. Furthermore, the historical setting of the Elephant Project requires consideration of variables associated with employee satisfaction, current socio-economic changes on the African continent and the appropriate use of partnership resources. Within the context of all these variables, successful grassroots interface between school leadership and teacher followership is considered fundamental to sustained transformation.

This study would benefit from further research specific to pre and post project implementation. An action research approach 1 Harold L. Sirken, Perry Keenan, and Alan Jackson, “The Hard Side of Change Management,” Harvard Business Review’s 10 Must Read On Change Management, (2011): 155.

2 K. Breu, “The Role and Relevance of Management Cultures in the Organizational Transformation Process,” International Studies of Management & Organization, (2001): 33.


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to teachers, school managers and the school governing bodies in all schools in the Gauteng province of South Africa.

Mokiritle Billy Debeila
Matthew Goniwe School of Leadership and Governance
011 422 1229
011 422 1304(f)
An increasing number of government provincial education departments have either created or are considering creating agencies to help them in the training of in-service teachers. This decision is largely taken as a response to declining confidence and interest among teachers on government organised trainings. Some of the challenges that are cited by teachers on the poor quality of government trainings are, they are poorly researched, lack of knowledge among trainers, they are onesize-fit-all, poor quality of training material, and poor organisational and project management skills among the officials.

As the organisation celebrates its 10th anniversary since being established, the author documents its journey as it provides capacity building programmes on behalf of Gauteng Department of Education (GDE) to the schooling population in the province. This paper then studies at depth, the agency model literature and the relevance of the model for delivering teacher development programmes. It also highlights the challenges related to managing the ministry-agency relationship. The paper interrogates issues such as, funding, interference, mission-drifting and other related problems. Finally, suggestions are made for adaptation and improvement on the current MGSLG model as make it more efficient.

While the outsourcing of these trainings to government funded and controlled agencies has avoided and eliminated most of the above challenges, it has however created its own new set of problems. The relationship between the education department and its agency can sometimes be very complex and strained to the point of creating paralysis. It often needs to be managed both administratively and politically.

In this paper, the author critically analyse one such agency which was created by the Gauteng provincial Department of Education in South Africa. Matthew Goniwe School of Leadership and Governance (MGSLG) was created with a mandate to provide training programmes DETA

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Lore Gallastegi & Joyce Chitsulo
The Open University (UK, Scotland) & FAWEMA
00 44 131 5497925
00 44 131 220 6730(f)

1. Priscilla N Ezema 2. Simeon I Eze
Federal College of Education Ehamufu Enugu State Nigeria
Theme: The need for access, equity, sustainability, quality, and relevance within the context of globalization.

Theme: Teacher education and development in Africa: the need for access, equity, sustainability, quality and relevance within the context of globalization

Teacher education in Nigeria has received some positive transformation over the years in terms of planned mobilization and direction of scarce resources amongst other variables. But from all intents and purposes, it has not developed to the expected level to meet the needs, yearnings and aspirations of the Nigerian people in particular and the world at large. Teacher education in tertiary institutions which should be the role model amongst the various tiers of the educational framework does not fare any better. This paper explores the role of collaboration and partnership and the issue of development of teacher education in Nigeria, teacher education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria and the need for collaboration and partnership amongst tertiary institutions in Nigeria to advance the cause of teacher education. It finally made some recommendations on how collaboration and partnership could aid the development of teacher education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria

1. The role of collaboration and partnerships in teacher
education and development in Africa
2. Equipping African teachers to develop their learners as critical citizens in a digital world (ICTs in teacher education).
3. Standards and quality assurance in teacher education and development in Africa
4. Models, practices or experiences in the use of distance
education for teacher education and development in Africa
5. Leadership and management development for African
schooling in the 21st century.
Many universities are working in partnership with Non-Governmental Organisations to develop different initiatives to support teacher education and development in Africa. Between 2010 and 2013, Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA) and the Malawi chapter DETA

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of the Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWEMA) have been collaborating in the design and delivery of the Malawi Access to Teaching Saltire Scholarship (MATSS) Programme for women in Malawi. Funded by the Scottish Government, the partnership between TESSA and FAWEMA has supported 1000 women from rural districts of Malawi in the MATSS programme.

Women who receive the Scholarship follow a structured one year programme of school experience activities while working in a local primary school and helping the teachers to support the learners. At the same time, the women use distance learning resources to study for the Malawi Secondary Certificate of Education to allow them to meet the entry requirements for teacher training programmes in Malawi. Other important collaborators in this initiative are the experienced local primary and secondary teachers in their role as mentors and tutors in the MATSS programme, as well as local district education officers and other educationalists who act as training facilitators in the professional development of these experienced teachers.

This paper will initially provide a summary of the process followed in the design of the MATSS programme based on the collaborative work between academics, experienced teachers and educationalists from Malawi and the Open University in the UK. It will continue to explore the role of the experienced teachers and educationalists who act as tutors, mentors and facilitators in the implementation of the programme and ensure its quality and sustainability in the future, as well as its relevance to the Malawi context and curriculum. Based on the experience of the collaboration between TESSA and FAWEMA, the paper will identify the lessons learned throughout the design and delivery of the MATSS programme, and conclude by providing examples of how the partners have worked together to find solutions to the challenges encountered in its design and delivery.


A. C. Izuagba and Dr. A.O. Afurobi
Department of Curriculum Studies, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria
P. C. N. Ezenwa
Department of Curriculum Studies and Educational Technology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
The teachers’ task is not just to equip the learners with knowledge; rather they are charged with the enormous responsibility of preparing the youths for the world of work, higher education and so on. To effectively perform this task in Nigeria, collaborative professional development needs to be integrated into the teacher education programme in Nigeria, whereby the prospective teachers will be exposed to different forms of collaborative processes to encourage net working and mentoring. The study will be an assessment of the level of peer collaboration in the implementation of teacher development programmes in the different Departments of Education in Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Nigeria and Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. It will be a survey of the different forms of


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collaborative practices adopted by the institutions and to what extent these practices are carried out in the institutions. Both the teacher educators and the prospective teachers will respond to the inventory and questionnaire that will be used for the study.

Sally James and Di Wilmot
Faculty of Education, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa Contact author:
Sally James
+27 11 717 3801

This paper addresses the notion of collaborative partnerships in a particular rural context in South Africa. The paper puts forward a case for partnerships when working towards change in education, arguing that deep and sustained change is a process involving multiple stakeholders.

This paper draws from a larger qualitative study interpretive in orientation that sought to understand teachers’ experiences of change in a school-based intervention project initiated by a non-governmental organisation (NGO). Emergent findings from the research reveal an effective partnership between civil society (within the context of this research, being an NGO), the local community (under the leadership of a tribal authority) and the State (being the Provincial Department of Education) working towards a common goal of school improvement. The research was conducted in the Umzinyathi Municipality in rural KwaZulu-Natal Province. Large sections of this municipal region fell within the former apartheid homeland area of KwaZulu. Nearly two decades since the transition to democracy, poverty levels remain high with 44% of residents reporting no formal education, and an estimated DETA

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80% of families within the region living below the poverty line (RSA, Umzinyathi Spatial Development Framework report, 2009, pp.24-25). There continues to be limited economic opportunities in the region with the majority of the population being completely reliant on social grants as their only means of income.

This paper describes the process of partnership and locates this attribute of educational change within the body of literature on rural education and partnership. The literature on rural education in South Africa emphasises the histories and various structures that have created conditions and circumstances of “oppression, deprivation, disadvantage and deficit” (RSA, Department of Education, 2005, p.8). The result being that schools forming a part of this study were placed at a disadvantage mainly during the apartheid period, where infrastructure and resources were inadequate, coupled with poorly trained teachers. Despite the fact that South Africa has been a democracy for 18 years, the quality of educational infrastructure, and the standard of teaching and learning remain problematic.

Republic of South Africa [RSA]. Department of Education. (2005). Report of the Ministerial Committee on Rural Education. A new vision for rural schooling. Pretoria: Government Printer.
Republic of South Africa [RSA]. Umzinyathi Spatial Development Framework. (2009, June). Retrieved May 31, 2011, from http://www.

The socio-economic profile of the community, together with the complex history of our country has paved the way for large scale intervention and development, particularly in the educational sector. Within this context, the work of a localised NGO, the David Rattray Foundation, in conjunction with the community and Department of Education is explored. The findings of this research contribute to the understanding of the successes achieved with respect to schoolbased interventions by focussing on this particular case study. Furthermore this study contributes to our broader understanding of the role of partnerships and educational change more broadly and by implication, in other similar rural contexts on the African continent.


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undeniably part of quality education; therefore quality teachers have to be modelled, trained and mentored. It is also obvious that teaching is complex, continuously evolving, so teachers must continuously learn, adopt, focused to several relationships and interactions affecting their work. This puts Teacher Education under constant scrutiny.

Doris Kaije
Kyambogo University, Uganda /
Uganda is one of the developing countries targeted to benefit from the Millennium Development Goals (MGDs). Being a heterogeneous country consisting of a mixture of tribes, dialects and cultures it is quite challenging to achieve equal development in all these mosaic cultures. In 1997 Universal Primary Education (UPE) was introduced in a population of over 32 millions. This came with great opportunities and challenges. There are undoubtedly multiple challenges for teacher formation in this sub-Saharan country where there is an insufficient supply of qualified teachers. More recently too, in 2011 Universal Secondary Education (USE) was started, increasing pressure on education resources.

The importance of Education to national development cannot be underestimated; therefore governments make it very important to give her citizens quality education. Indeed the issue of teacher formation and continuing professional development has been identified as crucially important in Uganda. (Mulkeen & Chen,2008). Along the years

research indicated that there is low quality education in the system where pupils are missing the basic skills like reading and writing, and arithmetic. Therefore there is a need to explore the inter-dependent relationship between the quality of teacher formation and pupil performance through enabling teacher educators to re-conceptualize and improve the teaching and learning process. Quality teachers are

Education is central to poverty reduction and the Government of Uganda’s Education Sector Strategic Plan (ESSP) stresses the need to improve curricula and pedagogy in teacher education institutions. Its strategy aims at helping primary pupils achieve their education goals through ‘the continuing improvement of teaching. This includes a continued effort to recruit teachers and teacher-trainees’. (Government of Uganda, 2004)

While access to education is crucial for poverty reduction, it is important to emphasise that the nature and quality of educational provision is critical if poverty reduction is to be achieved. Considering low GDP of Uganda’s economy, little is budgeted for education, hence the need for collaboration and formulation of partnerships to help government provide quality education to her citizens as well as achieve MDGs by 2015.

In her efforts to achieve this goal African governments have collaborate and made partnerships with various organizations and governments in and outside Africa. Interventions have been monitory, in kind, and personnel. TESSA is one intervention that has come on board in Sub -Saharan Africa to improve quality education. In Uganda it has not only targeted the teacher but the learner as well amidst many challenges. This research report will highlight the level of collaboration between Uganda especially the Education sector and the different organs, local and international; the role of the different organs in teacher education; the contribution of TESSA to quality Teacher Education in Uganda, and the challenges to achieve quality teacher education particularly Teacher Education and development.


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Prof. Esther Kibuka-Sebitosi
University of South Africa, College of Graduate studies, Institute for African Renaissance Studies (IARS), 287 Skinner Street, Pretoria. +27123203180/1
This purpose of this paper is to analyze the strategies for international collaboration in teacher development in Africa. Based upon a case study of the Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) project and underpinned by the Whole School Development approach, the study examines the key elements for collaboration with the view of determining the impact on Teacher Development. The project involved International collaboration among four countries (1) South Africa (2) Germany (3) India and (4) Mexico and local collaboration among institutions. In South Africa, the local stakeholders/partners were: Department of Basic Education, Department of Environment Affairs, University of South Africa, University of Rhodes and the Wildlife and Environment Society of South Africa (WESSA). The collaboration strategy was formulated on four pillars of ESD namely: Economic, Social, Political and Environmental dimensions. The implementation of the project was along two pillars: building local collaboration within

countries and secondly establishing international collaboration among the four countries.
Drawing upon local expertise in the four countries on Sustainability, a team of experts were established ( that developed a core Module for Teacher Education based upon the Cascade model of Training of Trainers (ToT). The Expertnet then developed a train for trainers (ToT) Module with the help of local stakeholders called the Teacher development network in the case of South Africa. The Module was implemented in the four countries through local collaborative net works and NGOs. The impact on teacher development was firstly through the identification of, “touch points” in the curriculum content and the module and the developed local practical examples that infused sustainable practices into the curriculum that teachers could use in a learner-centred class room. Secondly, throughout the dual collaboration (international and local) the impact on Teacher Education was seen through the enrichment of the teacher curriculum with material and examples from the international partners (Mexico, Germany and India) and local partners (Teacher development network). The curriculum (CAPS document) in South Africa, was infused with principles and examples of sustainable practices. Thirdly, the process of accreditation of the Module was being undertaken to benefit all partner countries locally and other teacher in Africa. Finally, each country gained from the capacity building Leadership programme of a pool of young Leaders in Education for Sustainable development, the internships and Mentorship of the next generation. The major theoretical underpinnings and pedagogies of the programme included whole school approach; collaborative learning; e-learning and connectivism. The impact on teacher development improved by the integrated approach; valuable relationships building among the local and International partners; integration of Education for Sustainable development into the Department of Basic Education curriculum based upon the skills pipeline development strategy from the Department of Environment Affairs in collaboration with the Department of Basic Education is underscored.


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Findings are discussed with regards to Teacher development within local African contexts. Recommendations include the need for local partnerships, stakeholder participation, leadership and International relations. The critical role of diversity and culture management in the collaboration is demonstrated.

Mahomed, Haroon
Director- CPTD
Department of Basic Education
012 3573686

Key Words: Education; Sustainable development; Whole School
Approach; Teacher Education; Collaboration; Mentorship

South African classrooms are diverse in terms of ability, age, language and culture and the country has eleven languages, including sign languages, as official languages. The majority of South African learners do not have English as home language but the majority of schools offer teaching and learning in English and English is the dominant language for assessment and certification as well as for official and international communications. Indigenous African languages have been under-recognized in the colonial period of the country’s history. The promotion of multilingualism and the protection of linguistic rights in the schooling system are rooted in the constitution, making provision for everyone “to receive education in the official language or languages of their choice in public educational institutions where that education is reasonably practical.”

Promoting multilingualism is about finding an approach fit for purposes of learning, addressing issues of equity, as well as dealing with inclusivity. One factor militating against the use of all languages as languages of teaching and learning (LOLT) is the hegemony of English as a preferred medium of instruction and communication, which, together with Afrikaans are still the dominant languages of learning and teaching in most schools. However, learners and even teachers, demonstrate low skills levels and poor basic competences in English. DETA

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This can be attributed to the lack of proper teaching instruction in the foundational skills of literacy, largely due to the lack of well trained teachers and poor methodology for teaching English first additional language (EFAL) at foundation phase (grades one to three).

With globalization and Internet Communication Technologies now being pervasive, and the debates about the hegemony of English shifting from towards varieties of English and its use in Africa and other parts of the developing world, English language skills are an advantage to have.

Consequently, the Department of Basic Education in South Africa has made the teaching and learning of English as First Additional Language compulsory in South African schools from Grade 1 and recently introduced it as an additional subject for the Foundation Phase

This presentation will cover the collaboration between the DBE-SA and the British council in promoting the EFAL programme. British Council have been doing work in the area and developed a Certificate in primary English language teaching (CIPELT) course focuses on strengthening the teaching, learning and assessment of EFAL. CIPELT has been implemented in South Africa to strengthen teaching across the curriculum in multi-grade schools. This paper will share the evaluation of CIPELT for strengthening the teaching of EFAL in a multi-grade context.

Prof. Tolly S. A. Mbwette
Vice Chancellor, OUT, President, ACDE & Chair of ACDE-TCC
This paper considers the case of the Open University of Tanzania (OUT) to discuss the potential benefits of collaboration and partnerships in production of educational resources. Specifically, the presentation cites the cases of OUT collaboration and partnerships with OU (UK), TESSA, AVU, ACDE-TCC and Ministry of Education and Vocational Training (MoEVT) (in Tanzania) to highlight the numerous educational resources that have been produced over the years and their role in teacher education programmes. Systematic review of relevant literature and reports was conducted to generate concrete evidence of educational resources produced as a result of collaboration and partnership between OUT and other institutions within and outside the country. Evidence indicate that generally, collaboration and partnerships between institutions are effective in contributing to improved access to quality teaching and learning educational resources which in turn address the increasing demand for resources. Furthermore, evidence show that the produced

educational resources are useful in terms of enriching the limited resources in the provision of teacher education programmes and in improving interaction between learners and instructors because of their interactivity nature. It is concluded that given the potentials of collaboration and partnerships, education institutions do benefit immensely in terms of education resources.


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Keywords: Collaboration, Partnerships, Teacher Education and Distance Education.

Juliana Munialo Mutoro
University of Nairobi
Department of distance studies
Dr. Rosemary Imonje
University of Nairobi
Department of educational planning and administration
This paper investigates the role of collaboration and partnership in teacher education and development in Africa. Teacher education is important as it empowers the teachers with the necessary skills that are needed for bringing about development .We begin this paper by discussing types of teacher education in Africa. The paper goes on to discuss collaboration and partnership in teacher education and development and the parties that are involved in collaboration and partnership. We will also look at the consequences of collaboration and partnership in teacher education. The challenges experienced in teacher education. We will suggest solutions to these challenges. Key words: Teacher, Teacher education, Collaboration, Partnership, Development


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Ernest (Dr.) Ngman-Wara
Department of Basic Education
University of Education, Winneba
Sakina (Mrs.)Acquah
Department of Basic Education
University of Education, Winneba
The use of inappropriate method, coupled with the inadequate supply of teaching learning materials for teaching of science in basic schools in Ghana is one of the major constraints for effective teaching and learning. Even where TLMs are available some teachers are not resourceful enough to apply appropriate methods of teaching during science lesson presentation. The TESSA secondary school science modules offer opportunities for Ghanaian junior high school teachers to develop and use innovate methods for effective teaching and learning of science lessons. The TESSA secondary science modules were developed through collaboration and partnership among five African countries. The modules are being implemented in all partner countries which include Ghana. In Ghana, the implementation of the modules commenced with pre-service teachers at the Basic Education Department of Education, University of Education, Winneba. The study, therefore, investigated pre-service teachers’ reflections on the use of TESSA secondary science modules during a semester

internship programme. The sample consisted of 34(8 females and 26 males) fourth year Basic Education students of the University of Education, Winneba. During preparation for the internship programme, participants were taken though the TESSA secondary science modules, after which they used them to prepare lessons for micro teaching seminars and also during their one semester internship programme in basic schools. The research design for this study was descriptive survey and mixed method approach was used to collect data using questionnaire and focus group discussions as data collection instruments. Three research questions were answered. Data collected were analysed through frequency counts, simple percentages, means and standard deviations. Participants 32(94%) reported that the use of the TESSA resources provided innovative ways of presenting science lessons to their internship classes. Majority of the participant 31(91.2%) also indicated that their students enjoyed and fully participated in these lessons. The use of the case studies was indicated as one of the effective innovations which made their lessons very interesting. Participants also suggested that science textbooks should be written in this form so that teachers all over Ghana can use this innovative method in presenting science lessons. These notwithstanding, participants 32 (94%) reported among others that, accessibility of hard copies of resources would be a challenge to them since most schools do not have ICT tools from which they could print out materials. It is therefore recommended that copies of TESSA secondary science resources be made available in all schools for effective implementation by teachers.


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Charles Opolot-Okurut
Makerere University
Juliana Bbuye
Makerere University
The world over one key question that teacher educators ponder is ‘how can universities and schools work together to address educational issues?’ Traditionally, teacher education and schools have lived separate isolated lives (Broadbent and Brady, 2013). However, it has been realised that several advantages and benefits exist in maintaining university-school collaboration so that both the university and the schools gain mutual benefits from the interactions. University-school partnership serve several purposes such as opening channels for sharing ideas and information, initiating, maintaining and upholding an open two-way communication system between

the collaborating members. In this paper the benefits of conventional university-school partnerships are illustrated with reference to Makerere University, Uganda, as a case. One type of partnerships between university and schools is where students are sent to schools for school practice. Another type of collaboration is where in-service students are sent on projects within their own schools. University staff is also sometimes invited as facilitators to school workshops and seminars or as supervisors of projects. Key success factors in those collaborations are identified in this paper and also the several barriers to the collaborations that are sometimes encountered are explored.

This paper is a result of an exploratory study, meant to investigate participants’ perceptions about the benefits of university-school partnerships; and the barriers of such partnerships, in a quest for effective teacher preparation, and continuous professional development of teachers, in Uganda. In particular the study sought to seek answers to the general question: What are the benefits and barriers to university-school collaboration? To identify perceptions a qualitative research paradigm was followed through a case study of Makerere University’s use of TESSA-project materials. The case study focuses on gaining a wealth of detailed information on a small sample of informants and sources, chosen specifically to address the research questions of the study (Patton, 2002). Semi-structured interviews were organised around the key research questions. Interviews with 25 participants were used for data collection based on Merriam’s (1998) perspective. Semi-structured interviews are suitable for exploration of perceptions and opinions of participants regarding complex issues. Furthermore, probing follow-up questions were possible so as to clarify responses and information. The qualitative data analysis follow an interpretative, grounded theory approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) relying on the constant comparative method (Merriam, 1998; Miles & Huberman, 1994; Strauss & Corbin, 1990).

This study therefore identifies the barriers and benefits of universityschool collaboration that could enhance pre-service teacher development. In this presentation the initial data analysis will be shared with participants of the conference, as well as a discussion of the details of the study findings and particularly on how universityschool partnership could be improved, for the mutual benefit of the two entities, for better teacher professional development.


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Broadbent, C., and Brady, J., 2013 Leading change in teacher education in Australia through university-school partnerships. The European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences (eISSN: 23012218), pp. 687-703.

Kris Stutchbury, Ernest Ngman-Wara, Sakina Acquah
The Open University / TESSA ; University of Education,
Winneba, Ghana;;
01908 858658
01908 652218(f)

Merriam, S. B., 1998 Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Miles, M. B., and Huberman, A. M., 1994 Data management and
analysis methods. In N. K. Denzin, and Y. S., Lincoln (Eds.). Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 428-444). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Patton, M.Q., 2002 Qualitative research and evaluation methods, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Strauss, A., and Corbin, J. 1990 Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park: Sage.

TESSA Secondary Science was a project, which ran between 2010 and 2012, with a grant from the Waterloo Foundation. The aim was to extend the TESSA ‘way of working’ into secondary schools. It has been suggested (SEIA, 2007) that secondary education does not contribute to human capability development as effectively as it could and that student learning and achievement remain low. Furthermore, strong performance in mathematics and science is associated with economic growth so a focus on secondary education is appropriate. Colleagues from five countries (Ghana, Zambia, Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya) worked together to produce a set of resources that are now on the TESSA website (TESSA, 2012). The resources are designed to support teachers in developing pupil-centred approaches to learning, and crucially, to examine their own practice.

The project was underpinned by a clear rationale (Stutchbury and Ngman-Wara, 2012) and research carried out during the writing workshops was used to inform the implementation process (Stutchbury and Katabaro, 2011; Stutchbury, 2011). The TESSA approach to change is based on the ideas of Elmore who suggests ‘the closer one is to the problem the greater is one’s ability to influence it’ (Elmore, DETA

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1980, 605) and that effective change therefore takes place ‘from the bottom up’. There is evidence that this approach has been successful (Harley, K. Barasa, 2012), but there are implications. Storey (2006) finds evidence that for change initiated at the grassroots, the critical mass of take-up is likely to be slow and inconsistent. It is also possible that such changes eventually become institutionalised, and be used by the authorities as part of accountability mechanisms. In these circumstances, it is feasible that resistance will develop.

During the last year, colleagues have been working within their institutions to implement the ideas and resources from TESSA Secondary Science and have evaluated their use. This paper presents case studies from partner institutions; identifies the successes, challenges and the lessons learnt, and reflects on the issues raised by Storey in the light of experience.

to the curriculum. Our data shows, however, that many challenges remain, including accessibility, pressure to complete the examination syllabus and the tension between theory and practice. Our evidence shows that the theory underpinning student-centred approaches is well-understood, but that the observed practices in school do not always reflect this understanding. Mutemeri and Chetty (2011) argue that a ‘new epistemology’ (p516) for teacher education is required based on strong school-university partnerships. We will use our learning from this project to make some specific suggestions for how such partnerships might work, both in terms of the principles that might underpin partnership working and the practices that could develop. References

Elmore, R.F., (1980) Backward mapping: Implementation research and Policy Decisions Political Science Quarterly, Vol 94, No. 4, 601616.

Case Studies
Partner institutions have used a variety of approaches to implementing TESSA Secondary Science. In Ghana, colleagues have worked with pre-service teachers; in Tanzania, the resources have formed part of an in-service programme for teachers and in Kenya, colleagues have worked with other teacher educators to support them in using the resources in their work with pre-service teachers. Data has been collected through interviews, focus groups and lesson observations. Conclusions

Emerging evidence suggests that the ideas contained in the TESSA Secondary units are helpful. Student teachers have reported that their students enjoyed the lessons and participated fully. Teachers appreciate the fact that the activities are short and are explicitly linked

Mutemeri, J., Chetty, R. (2011) An examination of university-school partnerships in South Africa, South African Journal of Education, Vol 31, 505:517
SEIA, 2007, At the crossroads: choices for secondary education in Sub-Saharan Africa. SEIA synthesis report. Downloaded from : http://
Executive_Summary.pdf Jan 28th 2011
Storey, A. (2006) The search for teacher standards: a nationwide experiment in the Netherlands Journal of Education Policy Vol 21, No 2, p215-234
Stutchbury, K. (2011) Implementing change in Science Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: challenges and opportunities. Conference presentation ICET, Glasgow, July

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Stutchbury, K., Katabaro, J. (2011) TESSA Secondary Science: addressing the challenges facing science teacher-education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Conference presentation, DETA, Maputo, August Stutchbury, K. Ngman-Wara, E. (2012) Developing Effective

Pedagogy: the thinking behind TESSA Secondary Science.
Conference presentation at ICET, Cape Coast, Ghana, July
Harley, K. and Simiyu Barasa, F. (2012) TESSA Evaluation Report (accessed 25th April 2013) TESSA Secondary Science units (2012) Secondary-Science (accessed 26/02/13)


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Emmanuel Adu
Dean, Faculty of Education
BA ISAGO University College

Equipping African teachers to develop
their learners as critical citizens in a
digital world (ICTs in teacher education)

Ifeoma Eze
HOD, Department of Teacher Education and Development
BA ISAGO University College
In this age of rapid change and uncertainty, there is one thing which is very paramount and pertinent to know- teachers will need to adapt to change if they are to be relevant, survive and keep pace with new methods and technologies. The area of most rapid change is that of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). This paper investigates how teachers use ICT for their professional development. One of the questions being asked by many teachers is: What will be the long term impact of the introduction of these technologies into the classroom? Other questions are being raised are: What kind of skills will teachers need to acquire in order to be effective in an ICT based learning environment? How does ICT impact professional development? This paper will address these important questions by highlighting the experiences of teachers using ICT in Botswana, and offering some further examples of established ICT policies and infrastructures in Botswana. It does not leave behind the benefits of bringing ICT into a classroom. It is however, recommended among DETA

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others that teacher training institutions, professional development schools, societies and public educational agencies must continue to identify study and disseminate examples of effective technology integration that answer professional development needs.

Kossi Richard Agbogan
+228 90 35 42 52

Keywords: Professional Development, ICT, Teacher

Working together is something teachers around the world should learn at a time of education globalization. The expected goal is to share good practices in order to guarantee quality of what is thought to learners. APRELI@ (Association For the Promotion of African Open Educational Resources), whose e-twinning is an innovative initiative to enable pedagogical and cultural exchanges between two or more different schools by providing a framework for correspondence between classes.

The e-twinnings contribute to the capacity building of teachers teaching and learning and support them in developing new approaches to pedagogy and in acquiring new skills (including digital literacy and ICT integration in their practices).

Apréli@ developed a model of working collaboratively with several OERs so as to capitalize on good existing practices. Resources adapted from TESSA and IFADEM have both contribute significantly to the Apréli@ bank of materials. And I will suggest it is the case that colleagues in Togo will be able to draw on Saide unit 1 (Using learners test data for professional development)

The Directorate of Teacher Education in Togo has used these three OERs to provide teachers with appropriate and flexible training to meet individual needs, as well as coaching to enable them to be DETA

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creative in their own professional development. We shall see how these collaborative working and partnership is been developing in teacher education in Togo.
In my presentation I will consider why adopting and adapting relevant OER material in teachers training is important and how it can be used to create a strong network of e-exchange between schools in the world, and schools do not only involve pupils, but also teachers. In my presentation I will consider why adopting and adapting relevant OER material in teachers training is important and how it can be used to create a strong network of e-exchange between schools in the world, and schools do not only involve pupils, but also teachers.

I will suggest that it is the case that the Apréli@ and other e-exchanges will enable the building of teacher network based on teaching experiences. These networks may go beyond the exchange of classroom materials.

The experiences of the Directorate of Teacher Education in Togo thus far highlight the importance of selecting and using of relevant OER material in teachers training and of introducing them to teacher trainers so that they can use them and enact them in their own teaching and training to the point of changing their pedagogical approach.

Kossi Agbogan is a teacher trainer at the Directorate of Teacher Education in Lomé (Togo). He participated in the preparation of Togo main training plan, a reference document for the initial and continuing training of Teacher Training Staff in Togo, and contributed to the development of training modules for primary school teachers. Trained in educational technology, he realized a model of distance learning courses in a virtual learning environment for the teaching style a given online project. Before joining the Directorate of Teacher Education, Richard has served as professor of mathematics. He joined the OER movement in Africa early. One of two representatives of TESSA in Togo, he participated in several international meetings. He actively participated in the international workshop production model and resources francophone educational e-twinning Apréli @ (Dakar, April 2011).Richard is the Representative for Apreli@ in Togo. He has completed an MA in English.

The Apréli@ experience shows that materials can be adapted
adopted from various OERs to create new banks of materials adapted to specific needs.
The OER community needs to keep watch. The world of OER is
growing and new resources can contribute to any OER bank. In the case of Apréli@, the training teachers to use a learner errors data-base in teacher training should inform and impact classroom practices. The OER community needs a tool to share effectively.


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is a need for institutions to encourage and assist faculty members to get involved and provide assistance and training to students, so that they are able to take advantage of available resources. Resources should be more adaptable to local contexts, and quality and standard measures should be put in place. It is only then that educational justice and the true development of individuals will take place, and education will not only be made easier for the elite.

Ruth Aluko
University of Pretoria
+27 12 420 5604
The issue of access is not new to the debates in higher education. However, in recent times, university education has moved from its former position of elitism to massification. Most governments have realised the correlation between an educated population and a country’s economic power. In order to meet this need, much attention is currently being given to the provision of distance education because of its ability to break down barriers to education. Linked to this is the case of technology. Much awareness is being generated of open educational resources (OERs). These are generally electronic resources that are available at little or no cost and can be used for teaching, learning or research. They are of great value because their effective use could lead to access to valuable educational material with better content, pedagogical innovation, collaboration and participation. In following the example of the developed world, developing countries such as Africa are making attempts to seize this opportunity. However, the concern for the researcher is: “To what extent can OERs truly fill the educational gap between developed and developing countries, and the rich and the poor, in the developing context?” Admittedly, OERs have advantages, but the researcher argues that for them to be effective in the developing context, there is a need for African countries to come up with effective national policies that would compel institutions to develop and apply their own policies and provide better access to information and communication technology (ICT). Furthermore, there


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but have also incorporated OER into their teaching practices and have used it for their own learning. Further, although uses of OER since their participation in the workshops were found to center around classroom preparation, teachers reported enhanced collaborative curriculum development practices—both with their students and their colleagues since the workshops.

Ibrahim Abed Elgafar Amani
Dean of the Faculty of Education
Open University of Sudan
Abou Imam Mohammed
Manger of the Academicprogrammes
Open University of Sudan
Oer Teacher Training Initiative at ousudan offers teachers a collaborative professional development model centered on
engagement with Open Educational Resources (OER). Since 2009, ous has trained over 6,000 teachers from 18 centers in its program focused on collaborative innovation and social learning using open curriculum and open teacher approaches. Our efforts have focused on developing on a model for professional learning for teachers that positions ous-facilitated peer-led engagement with OER as an innovative strategy for supporting creative collaborative practices for teaching and learning. It also provides opportunities for continuous improvement of teacher professionalism, as well as improving the quality, relevance, and accessibility of resources.

Through useing OER, we find that teachers often lack, awareness of the potential benefits of OER, and digital skills, facility with making, remixing, and sharing content with their peers.
Finally the Research conducted on the impact of teachers’ participation in ous OER training has shown that OER professional development workshops have supported teachers in creating, using, sharing and reusing OER. Specifically, our research revealed that teachers have not only created their own OER since participating in the workshops,


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Pritee Auckloo

Prof. Honoratha M. K. Mushi
The Open University of Tanzania

The Mauritian education system is evolving and along with, we observe an upsurge of local initiatives and current philosophy of sharing which permeates through small and large scale projects. At the heart of many of these initiatives is the will to attain the Millennium Development Goals and achieve the Education for All agenda. In this paper we look at the two such projects emanating from the Open Learning philosophy conducted in Mauritius in the teacher education programme. This paper illustrates how an Open Educational Resources (OER) project paved its way to a multiplying effect in the Mauritian teacher education system, leading to novel Open educational practices in schools and on campus.. It suggests that both in service and pre-service primary school teachers engage in the OERs movement although they do not form an integral part of the original consortia of the Teacher Education for Sub Saharan Africa (TESSA) . The case studies illustrate how OER movement transgresses boundaries and barriers and how

‘teacher originated contribution’ and appropriation of OERs can be transformed into innovative and authentic learning experiences. Further it seeks to redeem the cause and purpose of ‘sharing’ across and beyond tangible and intangible boundaries in the ‘re-tooling’ of pedagogical practices.

Keywords: Open Educational Resources, Open Educational
Resources, authentic, re-tooling

Prof. Cornelia K. Muganda
The Open University of Tanzania
Critical minds refer to people who think critically. Such people consider things, issues or events through interrogative perspectives. They ask questions beyond the ‘face value.’ Through critical minds naturalized and totalized aspects are balanced to determine intervening variables to specific conditions. They explore actual situations and seek relevant solutions. Criticality connotes assessment and analysis of situations and taking appropriate developmental actions. In this paper the researchers argue that critical thinking is an imperative of sustainable development for African societies during digitization and globalization. Noting that most of the digital resources originate from outside Africa; the researchers point to persisting colonial and neocolonial legacies. They argue that the latter have consistently encouraged African countries’ dependence. As a consequence, schooling in African countries has been tuned to rote memorization which does not develop critical minds; rather it encourages in-competences, classification, marginalization and vulnerability. Since sustainable development requires meaningful comprehensive liberation and in-dependence, African schooling has to be re-designed and engineered to engage teachers and learners in a critical manner. The redesign should reflect the African context and critical self- empowerment. DETA

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Noting that education and learning has an important role in molding critical forward looking mindsets, the researchers analyze the role of teachers in the process of developing critical minds for sustainable development. They explore how teacher education can develop

teachers who are capable of teaching and encouraging learners to interrogate and contextualize what they learn as well as seek solutions to existing and emerging problems.
The arguments are anchored on a survey conducted on the challenges and prospects of implementation of critical pedagogy in secondary school in Tanzania. Some of the challenges uncovered as inhibiting the implementation of a critical pedagogy included, among others, examination based curricula; emphasis on completion of study circles rather than on learning; limited policies and guidelines to direct empowering teaching, learning and evaluation; constrained school teaching and learning environment; limited ICT infrastructure, tools and related skills; and conflicting schedules. The challenges also included mindsets hinged on a culture that associate learning to schooling rather than learning for life with the mission of a lifelong learning endeavor that forms the core of digitalization and meaningful globalization. If Africa is to attain sustainable development, teachers need to be educated to levels where they can employ critical pedagogy to develop critical and innovative learners directed towards developmental thinking and actions. The researchers recommend a focus on the role of teacher education and strategies to develop teachers capable of developing critical thinking learners. The strategies include encouraging teachers to become critical thinkers themselves through: exposure to ICT, literature on reflective and critical thinking; relevant contextualized assignments; disentangling knowledge, mere information, positive and negative criticisms; as well as practicing ‘praxis’ and critical pedagogy.

Kisirkoi Florence Kanorio
Lecturer-Maasai Mara University:
PO Box 861 - 20500
+254 724 107 155
Kenya aspires to harness science, technology and innovations for regional and global competitiveness and this would be achieved more effectively if learners in teacher education institutions were developed into critical citizens in digital world. This is in realization of the fact that an innovation in education that is not backed by the teacher is bound to fail. The teacher at pre- service should have been equipped with ICT skills to be used in classroom teaching. This is in appreciation of the fact that use of ICT in education enhances teaching and learning and also exposes learners widely to technology. This enables them to apply technology with ease in learning and in their daily activities. The main concern of this paper was to investigate whether the primary school teachers in Kenya are prepared during pre service to develop the learners in the technological field and whether the computer is used as teaching learning tool. Primary school pre service in Kenya are prepared using the national teacher training curriculum developed by the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE). In this study the teacher national curriculum for certificate course pre service teacher trainees was analyzed to find out whether it prepares teacher trainees for ICT integration in education. The Information and Communication Technology Teaching Guide for Primary Teacher Training Colleges developed also by KIE was evaluated. It was designed to enable the teacher interpret and implement the ICT syllabus. The adherence to DETA

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technological standards for teachers was also checked. It was clear that the curriculum lacks content and skills necessary to prepare the teacher trainees in planning and designing learning environments that enhance learners’ construction of knowledge and expose them to learning experiences it was designed to develop computer studies students. The guide too was not designed to help teachers use the computer as a teaching learning tool. Recommendations were provided.

Andrew Kosgei
University of Kabianga
Joyce Agalo
Moi University

Key words: integration, technology, education, citizen in digital world

Martin M. S. Wanjala
Mathematics teachers are expected to integrate technology in their teaching to enhance pedagogical practice and student achievement. However, importance has not been placed on preparing teachers to use ICT in their instruction. This paper reports on a study conducted to explore the feasibility of ICT use in mathematics teaching at secondary school level. The study was conducted as part of a Teaching and Learning Technology research seeking to evaluate instances of ICT implementation in mathematics instruction. Based on an expanded variation of the Technology Acceptance Model, a survey of student teachers was undertaken at local universities in Kenya. It explored the factors affecting the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in instruction which is necessary for effective future use of ICT in the classroom. A questionnaire was administered to 200 fourth year student-teachers of mathematics seeking to get their attitudes to ICT in learning and teaching and their initial experiences of the application of ICT in mathematics instruction. In-depth interviews with the student-teachers, as well as university lecturers, revealed a range of issues that reflected how student-teachers perceive integration of ICT in mathematics instruction. The overriding DETA

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conclusion is that schools must be supported and resourced properly, and teachers must have effective ICT training, before improvements in ICT development for student teachers can be achieved. Teachers perceive existence of barriers to their use of ICT during school practice due to their attitudes, lack of resources and time. Although lack of appropriate equipment was considered an important factor when students were unable to use ICT in their instructional practices, it was also evident that teachers’ attitudes played the most crucial role. University teacher training programmes should equip teacher trainees with required computer knowledge and skills. Adequate time must be provided for teachers to develop ICT literacy skills, explore integration of ICT into their existing teaching approaches, curriculum development and delivery, if computers are to be used effectively in instruction.

Key words: Mathematics, Instruction, ICT, Integration, Pedagogy

Dr Segano R Litheko
Central University of Technology, Free State,
27(51) 5073326
27 (51) 5073367(F)
The last few years have witnessed an absolute acceleration in the development of information and communication technologies (ICT’s). Globally, ICT has formed a part of education systems for quite a while, especially in developed countries. The use of ICT for educational purposes has been utilized by students at the Central University (CUT) and other African Universities in various forms by staff and students alike. However, primarily this study is interested in the area of e-learning. This paper reports on the study undertaken at CUT to determine whether students in the School of Teacher Education find the application of ICT offered by CUT useful and relevant to their education and training. Secondly, the study further investigated whether e-learning is achieving the expected outcomes by Teacher Education students within the School of Teacher Education at the CUT. The results indicated that students are not negative towards e-learning as such, but that lack of accessibility of computers tends to influence them negatively, and that the information on the Web-CT is not always updated on a regular basis. The results also indicated that 65% of students did not own a personal computer and therefore where forced to make use of the computers available on campus. Almost


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72% of students complained regarding the information available on Web-CT, describing it as “scanty” and, at times, “outdated”. Lessons were drawn for the Sub-Saharan African Universities.


Keywords: E-Learning, Web CT, Students attitudes to ICT and
Student Teachers

Clemence Makamure
Zimbabwe Open University
Models, practices or experiences in the use of distance education for teacher education and development in Africa
Open educational resources are a new paradigm that is hugely impacting and changing the mode of scholarly communication in Zimbabwe. The paradigm is based on the notion and belief that Scientists, scholars and academicians need to publish their findings and have them disseminated as widely as possible so that mankind can benefit from their research efforts. It is a paradigm that aims at enhancing knowledge and information sharing at unprecedented levels. As economic hardships continue to pierce into every sector of life in Africa, the need to learn while earning has rocked the hearts of many and this has created a fertile ground for the expansion of open educational resources in teacher education movement. This paper seeks to assess the importance of open educational resources in teacher education focusing on Zimbabwe Open University. Zimbabwe Open University is believed to be largest university in Zimbabwe. This has been caused by its emphasise in the promotion, sharing and use of open educational resources (OER). The study is premised on the understanding that it is becoming difficulty for students to get into Conventional Universities given the economic hardship we face in the country today. It is against such an understanding that the paper would want to establish the importance of vindicating open educational resources in teaching and learning in Zimbabwe. The study is also DETA

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informed by the contention that in Zimbabwe, even the Conventional universities are now also opting for block release programmes so as to give opportunity to students to access education while working. Vital to note is the contention that Block release is form of learning which call for open educational resources so as to allow a wide access to information. Be that as it may, open educational resources are growing into becoming the best mode of learning in Zimbabwe. The paper is a qualitative analysis of the importance of harnessing open educational resources in teacher education. Interviews, document analysis and personal observations are to be used to triangulate data collection for this paper.

Truphena Eshibukule Mukuna
Masaai Mara University
School of Education
Department of Curriculum Studies & Instructional Media
P.O Box 861-20500 NAROK
+254 722 867 440
Dr. Stanley Ngome Mutsotso
Kibabii University College
School of Education
Department of Curriculum & Instructional Media
UNESCO planning guide for Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) in teacher education cites three key principles for effective ICT development in teacher education that were put forward by Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education (SITE). These were; to infuse technology into the entire teacher education programme, technology should be introduced in context, and that students should experience innovative technology supported learning environment in their teacher education programmes. The teaching profession needs to migrate from a teacher-centred lecture based instruction to a learner-centred interactive learning environment. To attain this aspiration, an ICT enabled teacher education is fundamental. There is an urgent need to equip African teachers with ICT skills so as DETA

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to develop their learners as critical citizens in a digital world. Therefore as Kenya strives to achieve Vision 2030 in this digital age, ICT cannot be underestimated. The National ICT Policy approved in 2006 was recommended by Sessional Paper No.1 of 2005 (A Policy Framework for Education ,Training and Research).It hoped to train 197000 primary school teachers and 38000 secondary school teachers on ICT literacy. A lot of research has been done in Kenya over the years on various aspects of ICT. However, integration of ICT in Kenya is still experimental and at the basic level. The use of computers in schools seems to be guided more by far-sighted administrators rather than an informed strategy for use and development of technology in education. Teachers’ use of ICTs in classrooms is rare and mainly attributed to resistance to use due to incompetence, lack of knowledge and in availability of the ICTs. Furthermore, the teacher as the implementer of this curriculum innovation is under researched. Little is known about teacher training and Continous Professional Development in ICT use in the classroom. This study aims to fill this gap in knowledge. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the missing link in the use and integration of ICTs in classrooms, thus training and Continous Professional Development of teachers .It used desktop literature review. It has suggested a review of the teacher education curriculum in Kenya starting from the basic level to the university. It has also suggested an invigorated Continous Professional Development of teachers and lecturers in ICTs in Kenya.

Key words: Continous Professional Development (CPD), Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Teacher Training

Lindiwe Mavis NZUTHA
VVOB South Africa
+27 79 293 3928
VVOB South Africa, Lancaster University (UK)
+27 71 399 7660
The conference paper is based on unpublished findings of one of the authors resulting from research conducted in Vietnam in 2011 and 2012 as part of a PhD programme. The research aimed to inform the future design of e-learning courses for teachers in the context of continuing professional development. A qualitative case study approach using the case ‘design-related motivations of teachers to choose for e-learning courses’ was followed. Data was collected by means of qualitative interviews with officials from the Ministry of Education and Training and e-learning experts, combined with an online qualitative survey with teacher trainers and teachers. Andragogy as understood by Malcolm Knowles (1973, 2005) was used as a theoretical framework. It was found that responsive content, flexible time and pace and, cooperation and collaboration with other teachers are expected motivating features of e-learning courses for teachers, three assumptions in line with some of the assumptions about adult learning made by andragogy adult learning theory.


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The conference paper reviews literature related to e-learning, continuing professional development, andragogy and the qualitative case study approach. The research approach (including data collection, processing and analysis) and the findings are extensively discussed. The relevance and possible implications of the findings for South Africa are discussed based on a comparison of some of the characteristics of these two middle-income countries and their education systems, and on interviews with a number of experts in the areas of continuing professional development of teachers and e-learning in South Africa.

The research, both in Vietnam and South Africa, occurred in the context of the operations of the Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance (VVOB), a Belgian development organization which is implementing programmes on teacher development in both countries.

Margaret Funke OMIDIRE
+27 72 949 3771
The DETA Conference, August 2011 and the Workshops on the use of OER were received with excitement about the prospects of the use of OER by teachers and what this could also mean for teacher education and development. Based on this, a project to design and build a multidisciplinary online course on Academic Research Writing using OER was initiated. Once completed, this was to be used by undergraduate and postgraduate students as a resource for research report writing, assignments, dissertations and theses.

The aim of the course was to address the challenges of academic writing among final year undergraduate and postgraduate students in the humanities and to assist students to master the art and techniques of academic writing thereby facilitating the completion of their projects, theses and dissertations. The participants were six lecturers selected from the Faculties of Arts/Humanities of a university in Nigeria. The project was divided into five phases with a timeline of 12 weeks. The phases were: conceptualisation, design, production, implementation and evaluation phases.

The project provided an opportunity for collaboration on the use of OER, raising awareness about the benefits of using OER and broadening of the user base for the resources. Some of the challenges encountered include lack of adequate access to the internet made dire by irregular DETA

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power supply; lack of commitment to the project by some participants due to pressures of their workload and lack of familiarity with OER. Unfortunately the project has not been completed. Even after 12 months since the conceptualisation phase the design phase has not been finalized.

Awareness about the use of OER has to be raised. In raising
awareness, basic computer/internet skills have to be taught side by side. A concerted effort has to be made to get mainstream institutions of higher learning involved and not just open/distance learning institutions. Regular local/regional workshops and training sessions also have to be organised to ensure that those in remote areas have access.

Albert Amoah Saah
Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology, Kumasi.
+233 24 466 7570, +233 20 299 9484,
Teacher education in Africa needs relevance within the context of globalization particularly for Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in teacher education to make their learners as critical citizens in a digital world toward accelerated development. ICTs in teacher education have been observed to be on the lower side of priority in governmental and educational institutions. Computers and the cyberspace have become the innovative terrain not only for business and science, but also more and more, education. There is gap in teacher-learner levels of competence; most teachers themselves have less interest or difficulty in ICT usage for learning and teaching activity. Further, lack of access to personal computers and ownership of the same; gap between ICT for Teacher education policy and practice in terms of ICT, have all in no small way militated against equipping African teachers to develop their learners as critical citizens in a digital world has become not only important but urgent. Teachers (N>100,000) in Ghana, need to be learners as well as end-users to be equipped to gain competence in the use of ICT for learning-teaching transaction. Only then can teachers transfer competence to develop their learners as critical citizens in a digital world. This exploratory study therefore sought to identify the enduser or teacher preferences to develop competencies for learning DETA

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community participation in selected countries from Sub-Saharan Africa. Sample size (S=384) was obtained for study selected from 5 teacher education institutions trainee and professional teachers in Ghana (and Gambia). Means of end-users’ bio psychosocial factors (x1), learning style (x2), ICT usage experience (x3), learner and learning support (x4), technical skills (x5), attitude (x6), knowledge (x7), types of learning communities experience (x8) were among the variables studied. Analysis of variance was used to test the hypothesis that means (x1, …, x8) were equal. Analysis employed were descriptive statistics, compare means, and nonparametric tests (at Confidence Level = 95%, Margin of Error = 5%) using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results showed that means were varied and not equal. A model was generated that made use of end-user preferences for ICTs in teacher education to enhance learner competencies for critical citizens in a digital world.

Keywords: critical citizens, ICTs, teacher education, learning communities

Standards and quality assurance in
teacher education and development in


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benefit teacher trainees, teacher educators and the planners in the Ministry of Education in Kenya and Africa at large.

Nancy K. Ayodi
Maasai Mara University
P.O. BOX 861-20500
Narok, KENYA.
Kiswahili is a compulsory subject in Kenya’s Institutions of learning except at college and university level. This situation has attracted and called for teacher training in Kiswahili subject so as to cater for the rising numbers of pupils and students in those institutions. Kiswahili is also a national language and second official language in Kenya. This study focuses on the teaching of Kiswahili to teacher trainees at Maasai Mara University, Narok-Kenya. The objectives of this study are to establish and explain the entry behavior of the teacher trainees in the Kiswahili subject, the course content administered to the trainees, standards and quality assurance procedures, the development of the subject, challenges encountered and possible solutions. Methodology and data collection will largely be based on the researcher’s actual classroom and outside classroom interaction with teacher trainees at the University. The researcher will engage in field research by carrying out interviews on teacher trainees, teacher educators and education officers. It is hoped that the findings of this presentation will go a long way to uphold standards and quality assurance in teacher education for the benefit of the learner at all levels. In addition, the findings will provide recommendations and solutions to challenges encountered in teacher Education. On overall the findings will and DETA

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excellence in teaching, research and publication. Quality assurance through mentorship is key to the enhancement of professionalism among academics. The lack of mentoring creates low self esteem and barriers to international knowledge networks at an individual level. The paper concludes that to achieve success teacher training institutions should include a formalized system for mentoring in all aspects of professional development.

Mr. Madalitso Khulupirika Banja
Lecturer, Department of Educational Psychology, Sociology and Special Education, University of Zambia
This paper discusses the need for mentorship of novice lecturers in teacher education as a tool for ensuring quality assurance in educational provision. The calibre of teaching staff plays an important role in determining the quality of graduates teacher training institutions produce. Quality assurance is important because the presence of lecturers in lecture rooms does not automatically ensure that proper and effective teaching is taking place. Academic staff, particularly novice staff, need much more than specialised knowledge in a discipline. They need teaching skills that will make them effective educators. Mentorship is critical in this endeavour because many novice lecturers are ill-prepared for the realities encountered during the early years of their working life. This paper argues further that formal mentorship of novice lecturers in teacher training institutions can be a critical quality assurance tool that brings benefits for both novice and veteran academicians. The purpose of mentoring is to promote the newcomer’s career advancement, personal development and education. The areas in which novice lecturers need mentorship include: research, counselling students, writing journal articles, writing and presenting conference papers, pedagogy, assessment tools, professional ethics, designing appropriate curricula and so on. There is need for systematic mentorship in order to achieve


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Elias W.J. Chakwera
Centre of Specialisation in ODL, Teacher Education
Open University of Tanzania
Final Abstract
Improving Examinee Performance in High-stakes Examinations
through Teacher Professional Development in Assessment
The extent to which professional development in assessment
improves the quality of tests and examinee achievement was the focus of the study. Six teachers nested within six schools preparing to sit MSCE History in 2003 were selected for the training experiment which lasted for 5 days staggered over 3 weeks. The results

showed that the training in multiple choice construction, developing a table of test specifications, conducting item analysis, editing and test moderation produced statistically equivalent tests which were independently constructed by two teams. The subtests were also statistically equivalent to the 2003 MSCE History 1on which they were modeled. With observed increase in reliability and means over the pilot samples of the subtest, it was concluded that the training in assessment accounted for enhanced test quality and improved examine achievement. It was therefore, recommended that the

examination agency participates in teacher professional development to improve examinee performance in national examinations.

The extent to which professional development in assessment improves the quality of tests and examinee achievement was the focus of the study. Six teachers nested within six schools preparing to sit MSCE History in 2003 were selected for the training experiment which lasted for 5 days staggered over 3 weeks. The results showed that the training in multiple choice construction, developing a table of test specifications, item analysis, editing and test moderation produced statistically equivalent tests which were independently constructed by two teams. The subtests were also statistically equivalent to the 2003 MSCE History 1on which they were modeled. With observed increase reliability and means over the pilot samples of the subtest, it was concluded that training in assessment accounted for improved test quality and examine achievement. It was therefore, recommended that MANEB participation in professional development would go a long way in improving examinee performance in national examinations. Key terms: professional development; assessment skills; teacher competence; statistically equivalent


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to be achieved in Zimbabwe’s higher education, policy makers and accreditation boards should keep in mind issues of relevance, costs, equity and international standards. This calls for establishment of national education standards that are inclusive to all.

Chigunwe Gilliet1 and Gate Tsitsi2
Zimbabwe Open University, Faculty of Social Sciences,
P Bag 984, Bindura, Zimbabwe
Bindura University of Science Education, P Bag 1020 Bindura, Zimbabwe.
(263) 773 274 013

Key words: Quality assurance, Inclusive Education, Persons with disabilities, Tertiary institutions, Regular Schools.

The Zimbabwe Council of Higher Education (ZIMCHE) is a quality assurance monitoring board that was established in 2009. Its purpose is to assure that higher institutions achieve standards and move towards excellence. While this is so, our observation is that, people with disabilities are left out by the measuring yardstick of standards and excellence of tertiary institutions such as teachers’ colleges. Zimbabwe is signatory to the international standards of inclusive education. Domestic policies on inclusive education have seen the enrolment and education of persons with disabilities in regular institutions. Our survey however revealed that most trained regular school practitioners lack skills of meeting the needs of students with disabilities. Students with disabilities are excluded both in academic work activities to infrastructure. Our survey revealed that the Education Officers (E.O) responsible for school infrastructure planning are former teachers whose technical or vocational training never equipped them with inclusion of disabled people in their architectural progammes. As a result, children with disabilities have been observed to be denied easy access of regular classrooms, toilets and water facilities. With such observations, one wonders as to whose definition quality standards in tertiary institutions are. If quality assurance practices are


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also suggests strategies of dealing with this unwarranted controversy in Teacher education programme.

Patrick A. Kafu
University of Eldoret
P.O. Box 1125 – 30100
+254 721-895809

Controversy, Education system, Teacher education, Teacher
preparation programme

Teacher education is a critical component of education. It underlies all forms of development in the society. This is because its main purpose and function is to prepare and produce school teachers who are quasi mentors and/or creators of the desired society. These individuals develop, instill and nurture the talents of people in the society and also the required competencies for development. No wonder, for a long time and in every society, this programme of education has always been held in high esteem. Nobody dared to raise questions about it. It was a programme of education taken for granted in all societies world over. But in recent times, new development is taking shape in it. This development concerns who should prepare school teachers and how should these individuals as teachers be prepared in modern world. This is a real controversy in Teacher education programme that requires good resolve for the sake of the public good. This paper examines the genesis of this unnecessary and/or unexpected controversy in Teacher preparation programme. In other words, the paper discusses factors that underly this controversy, its impact on the quality of school teachers being produced for the education systems as well as general development in the society. The paper


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and empirical bases of these approaches, which draw heavily on research on school improvement and effectiveness are explored and are guided by a research agenda that drives current and future work and ensures that change is grounded in Nigeria’s specific culture and circumstances.

John Kay, Osuntusa Abimbola, Oyeneye Olabode
Telephone: +234 (0) 8060586115;;

Key Words: quality, theory of change, teacher competence,
literacy, numeracy, leadership, management, partnership, school improvement.

Nigeria’s education system is in crisis. The 2012 EFA Global Monitoring Report highlights the problems, stating that 10.5 million children are out of school. Of those that are there many fail to learn the basics and parents who can afford it are deserting public schools for private education leading to further marginalisation of the poor. MLA results, UNESCO 1996, 2003, CUBE 2007, ESSPIN 2010, NEI 2011, show

that there has been no improvement in learning outcomes for over a decade and a half. How do you address the problem when faith in the system at all levels is lost? This paper reports on an initiative being undertaken in six States in Nigeria which is endeavouring to reverse this systemic failure. A theory of change is outlined, which at impact level, aims to result in more children achieving basic literacy and numeracy and to ensure that more children, especially girls, enter and complete primary education. To achieve these objectives four strategic directions were followed: a “better teaching approach” (focusing on teachers’ competence in the teaching of literacy and numeracy); a “better leadership approach” (focusing on headteachers’ ability to lead teaching in their schools); a “better management approach” (ensuring that schools are supported to put training into practice); and a “better governance approach” (ensuring political, monetary and systems support for change). The paper investigates the challenges of developing, in partnership with the States, a reform agenda which puts the school at the centre of the change process. The conceptual DETA

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Dr Aminu Sharehu Ladan
Director General
National Teachers’ Institute, Kaduna. Nigeria.

and Distance Education is all about and specifically highlight on the Quality Assurance Mechanisms of the National Teachers’ Institute, Nigeria; that is giving the programmes of the Institute its relevance, quality and prominence.

The Open and Distance Education is a teaching and learning process in which students are separated from the teachers by a physical distance which is often bridged by communication technologies. It is also an educational process in which a significant proportion of the teaching is done by someone removed in space and time from the learner. The National Teachers’ Institute (NTI), Kaduna Nigeria, operates an Open and Distance Learning Programmes, unlike most other higher institutions in Nigeria. It is established by Nigerian Government in April, 1978. The Institute is charged by government to specifically “organize and provide programmes for the training , development, upgrading and certification of teachers; conduct postgraduate courses and examinations in education for graduate teachers; to carry out research in conjunction with other bodies on any matter relevant to educational development in the country; to formulate policies and initiate programmes at all levels of education designed to improve by way of research, the quality and content of education in Nigeria; to foster and enhance international cooperation in the education of teachers; etc; all through distance education”. This paper will generally explain what Quality Assurance in Open


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Practice as the student teacher (mentee or protégé) depends on the quality of mentoring to be able to develop both personally and professionally in the teaching profession.

Sheila Nokuthula Matoti
Central University of Technology, Free State
0027 51 507 3370
0027 51 507 3367
Teaching practice or School-based Learning is an integral part of Teacher Education programmes. It is through Teaching Practice that student teachers become exposed to the real demands and challenges of the teaching profession. During Teaching Practice each student teacher is assigned a mentor, who, being a more qualified and experienced teacher, will be expected to provide professional guidance and support to the student teacher for the duration of the Teaching Practice period. Teachers as teacher leaders, as observed by Harrison and Killion (2007), perform the following functions: resource provider; instructional specialist; curriculum specialist; classroom supporter; learning facilitator; mentor; school leader; data coach; catalyst for change and a learner. These duties are in agreement with the roles of educators (teachers) in the South African context. These roles are: Leaning mediator; Leader, administrator and manager; Scholar, researcher and lifelong learner; Community, citizenship and pastoral role; Assessor; and finally, Learning area or subject specialist. Pre-service teachers, therefore, need expert guidance from experienced teachers to be able to perform these roles successfully. Hence, mentoring is very crucial during Teaching

This study was, therefore, undertaken to examine student teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with their school mentors. Forty (40) second-year science students participated in this study. A questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions was used to collect data from the participants. The sample consisted of 22 male and 18 female students. Their ages ranged from 18 to 25 years. The findings of the study revealed that the mentors were either heads of department or subject teachers. In some instances the head of department was also the subject teacher. The findings indicative of good experiences were categorized into the following: reducing or diminishing student teachers’ fears of teaching, providing various forms of support, familiarising student teachers with departmental policies and clarifying roles and responsibilities; providing demonstrations of good lessons; observing student teachers teaching, providing timely and constructive feedback on student teachers’ performance, encouraging student teachers to be self-reliant and being a colleague to the student teacher. Such experiences boosted the professional identity, sense of belonging and self-worth of these student teachers. Instances of bad experiences have also been reported. These included a lack of trust, total isolation of the student, and constant harassment of the student teacher in front of the learners. Educational implications of the findings have been stated.

Key words: Pre-service teachers, Teaching Practice, Mentoring, Teacher roles


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Muwandi J.N; Sibanda M; Zendah T.J; Mutseekwa C
and Zendah K.
Mutare Teachers’ College and VVOB Zimbabwe
(263) 04 333 418
(263) 04 333 418 ;; tjzenda@gmail.
com ; and
There is substantial evidence that pursuing quality teacher education can be an effective tool for development in Africa. World over teacher education institutions are being challenged to adapt to changing global educational needs of the 21st century that is advocating for the application of learner centred met hodologies. In Zimbabwe many teacher education colleges are rebranding towards a focus on quality assurance in order to meet the ever evolving needs of its various stakeholders. Mutare Teachers’ College has taken a proactive approach towards attaining excellence in quality teacher education. This paper explores how Mutare Teachers’ College has contributed towards improvement of quality teacher education and development in Zimbabwe. Firstly, the paper examines how the college’s mission and vision contribute towards improvement of quality teacher education. Secondly, the impact of the college’s internal systems, structures and processes on quality is analysed. Lastly, an assessment of the influence of the college’s strategic partners on quality teacher education and development is discussed. A case study premised on qualitative research was used. Data were collected around the following themesStrategic focus and Purpose; Organisational learning; Student Friendly

Learning Environment; Partnership and Networking for developmentthrough document analysis. Documents analysed were the institution’s strategic plan; subjects syllabi; staff development and Academic Board reports and minutes; University of Zimbabwe external examination reports; Draft document on teacher minimum standards from the Ministry of Education Sport, Arts and Culture; Students profiles; monitoring and evaluation reports and other relevant documents. Findings of the study indicate that the institution is responsive to the global changes related to the adoption of learner centred and participatory methodologies in teacher education. The institution is transforming itself into a learning organisation through institutionalising a monitoring and evaluation system which is guided by the Outcome Mapping Methodology (OM). The results also show a noted improvement in the student teacher performance on academic study and teaching practice. Finally, networking, collaboration, teamwork and partnerships have positively impacted on quality and development of teacher education. However, conceptualisation of what constitutes quality in teacher education in the institution is not fully shared with all the staff members. Furthermore, the absence of clear benchmarks on teacher minimum standards in the country was a cause for concern. The study also noted a low level of research culture in the institution. Recommendations on how Mutare Teachers College can continue to pursue excellence in the context of globalisation are as follows: (1) a continued implementation of staff development programmes to develop a culture of excellence in all staff members to be sustained. (2) The institution should lobby to the Ministry of Education, Sport, Arts and Culture and Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education for the development and provision of Teacher Minimum Standards (TMS). (3) There is need to broaden the partnership base of the institution to include regional and international stakeholders e.g twinning with Teacher Education institutions in other countries. (4) Finally, more engagement in research activities for staff should be encouraged as it will significantly impact on quality and development of teacher education.


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Mabula Nkuba
Dar es Salaam University College of Education.
Assistant Lecturer in Psychology and Education

Genvieve N. Nasimiyu
Moi University


Teacher education is an important component of education in any society because it deals with preparation and production of tearchers who are responsible for promoting development in the society \nation .For this cadre of personnel to carry out this mandate efficiently and effectively .Their is a need to to prepare them accordingly to the aspiration ofv society .In other words the training of teachers must be qualitative and relevant to the needs of the society they are expected to serve in.To realise this goal the ministry of education has established the quality assurance and standards unit to ensure that there are required quality and standards in tearcher education programmes in the contry hence producing globally competitive schools teachers for kenya and beyond . This paper is designed to examine concept of quality assurance and standards in tearcher education in kenya ,the preparedness of the quality assurance and standards officer(QASO) and their role in ensuring there are required good qualities and standards in this programmes of education and the facilitation of QASO by the kenya ministry of education .The suggestions made in this paper are likely to serve as a good guideline in improving the services of these officers in development and administration of tearcher education programme in kenya.

The paper review the relevance of teachers’ mobility in a context where there is unrelated teacher preparation, differences in quality asurance management approaches and uncommon training
standards. The main argument is on the need for having effective teacher regulatory authorities in Africa sa as to increase the rationale of teacher mobilities in different African countries. Teacher mobility is currently an international issue, that is why this paper focused on establishing the status of teacher regulatory authorities in Africa and the implications towards teaching profession standards and quality assurance in teacher education and development, which has implication on the quality of teachers moving from one country to another. In an attempt to address this question, the paper reviewed different African countrie’s education regulation systems in attempt to see the commonalities and differences, the factor that has implication in teacher- teaching standards upon professional mobility within Africa or in other countries out of African counties. The countrie’s teacher regulatory authorities and systems discused in this paper are Tanzania mainland, Zanzibar Uganda, Rwanda Kenya, South Africa and Nigeria. In attempt to address research questions in hand the paper findings indicates that, there are ineffective teacher regulatory authorities in many African countries selected in the study. In fact, the results indicate presence of well-managed and effective teacher regulatory authorities in Nigeria and South Africa. On the other hand, DETA

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Kenya identified as another country, which is recently establishing a good regulatory authority though in primary stages. In other remaining countries studied, it was found that, the ministries of education through specific departments are being used to regulate teacher standards and quality, example of the departments identified were school inspectorate.The paper also find that, in some inncidents teachers who teaches in similar or related levels of education across the studied countries are possessing different qualifications the situation which imply differences in levels of competences.This paper also managed to identify the challenges and lessons in implementing the teacher mobility Recruitment Protocol for Africa which demand for teachers’ registration with relevant regulatory authorities.The paper argues further that developing a continental code for teacher profesional practice in line to professional standards is crucial in Africa today the fact that call for need to strengthen teacher regulatory authorities in the continent. The paper finally conclude by recommending the need for gathering accurate data on teacher professional standards used by various African countries, quality asurance approaches, professional development and recruitment process for African teachers in an attempt to find employment out of their mother countries.

Keywords: Professional standards, Quality Asurance, Teacher
Regulatory authorities.

Dr. Peter Nzuki,
University of Nairobi

Prof. Samson Gunga
University of Nairobi

Dr. Omondi Bowa,
University of Nairobi

Dr. Japheth Origa
University of Nairobi

Shrinking resources from the exchequer, the demand for a more costeffective education and competition among Universities for students have recently motivated academic administrators in public universities to adopt strategic marketing approaches to enable them to survive. Successful institutions are defining market niches within un-served or under-served populations and are using innovative strategies that capitalize on new opportunities. Since traditional strategies such as reliance on on-campus mode of offering educational services are not in themselves sufficient for educational institutions to survive into the 21st century, many academic administrators are creating new visions for their institutions and programmes. In Kenya, for instance, five public universities and nine tertiary level institutions have launched distance education programmes to provide quality education to mature working adults who have the keenness and ability to continue their education by studying in their own time and place with far-reaching social and economic benefits. As distance education becomes more accepted as a legitimate form of education and as colleges and universities attempt to meet the growing demand for courses and programmes for distance DETA

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learners, one major concern is the aspect of quality and the assurance that students are being provided with the best possible education or training with the highest possible standards. The quality of distance education varies like any other form of education. Its quality can be the result of a variety of factors that are either internal or external to distance education organizations. Some of these factors include the levels of skills and expertise of staff, the amount of resources available, weak or strong leadership, and efficiency of its administration systems or the communication infrastructure in a country. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived tangibles dimension of a degree programme and growth of the programmes. Further, the study sought to establish the relationship between perceived responsiveness dimension and growth of the programmes. A self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect data from students, Distance Education administrators and lecturers. The sample consisted of 327 students, two administrators and 92 lecturers. The findings showed that there was no significant relationship between the two quality dimensions and the growth of Distance Education Programme. It was observed that growth occurred in spite of perceived quality dimension deficiencies due to career driven demand for higher education. However, quality dimension indicators that were considered as key consisted of adequacy and responsibility of teaching and support staff, clarity of course objectives, and flexibility of programmes for learners. Based on these findings, it was recommended that Distance learning institutions should engage sufficient and responsible support staff and lecturers to provide the much needed learner support services. Similarly, course objectives should be made clear, while programmes should be made as flexible as possible for learners to ensure growth of Distance Education Programmes.

Samuel Oyoo
University Of The Witwatersrand
+27 (0) 11 717 3263 (Office)/ +27 (0) 79 1997 816 (Cell)
This paper links ideas about what I think is a key issue and a major factor in successful implementation of effective science education in Africa. It presents the Kenyan case as a prototypical African country. While located in the sub-Saharan region, Kenya shares similar national development plans and dreams as well as socio-economic conditions as most African countries. In this work, the current status of science education in Kenya [Africa] is explained, and a blueprint for successful science education relevant to any country in Africa is presented. This argues for contextual and practical approaches to enhancing science teacher effectiveness including the use of Distance Education materials/approaches. It is anticipated that discussions of this work will generate debate within and about science education in Africa and hopefully ignite cross border research on teachers and the teaching of science. It is also hoped that the debates herein will raise questions locally and internationally on quality science education in Africa and elsewhere.

Keywords: teachers; teaching; science education; Africa; Kenya; effectiveness

Keywords: Distance Education, Growth in Distance Education,
Perceived Quality Dimension, Quality of Distance Education,
Responsiveness Dimension, Tangibles Dimension.

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Dr Clare Verbeek
University of Cape Town
Teacher development for the early years of schooling is a pressing need in the Global South in view of the MDGs, international achievement studies and the quest for quality in education. This paper focuses on one of the two possible qualifications for this purpose in the South African context, namely the Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) in Foundation Phase (FP) Teaching. This is a one-year post graduate qualification, which produces fewer than 20% of those graduating as Foundation Phase Teachers in South Africa annually. Five South African universities currently offer a PGCE(FP) through various modes of delivery, including one distance, one mixed mode and one part-time contact programme. A new and innovative PGCE specialisation for FP teachers will be introduced at the University of Cape Town in 2014. PGCEs are traditionally used as a method of developing pedagogical competence for senior school teachers who are assumed to have already developed relevant disciplinary content knowledge through their undergraduate studies. In the case of Foundation Phase teachers, the precise nature of this disciplinary knowledge is contentious. A common comment from practicing

teachers is that a one-year programme is not long enough to develop depth of knowledge and appropriate practical competences for teaching this crucially important stage of schooling. This criticism reflects particular views regarding preferred knowledge content of initial teacher development programmes for early years teachers. In the

context of the Global South, where large-scale teacher development is necessary and in which resources are relatively limited, the argument is increasingly being made for a pedagogy ‘for the poor’ which is not constructivist and in which so-called ‘basic skills’ and content are taught explicitly. This paper addresses the question: What assumptions about teaching and learning underpin the stated curricula of current and planned PGCE(FP) programmes in South Africa? Through a scoping of the existing programmes and a critical account of the conceptual framework for UCT’s PGCE(FP) programme, the paper explores what counts as foundational knowledge for Foundation Phase teaching. It is argued that the pedagogical principles of thinking; narrativity; participatory democracy and social justice; intellectual integrity; and embodied meaning-making help shape the ‘content’ of Foundation Phase teacher education. The implications of this for distance programmes for teacher education and development are considered.


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S. Y. Ampofo
Centre for Continuing Education (CCE),
University of Cape Coast (UCC), Cape Coast

Models, practices or experiences in the
use of distance education for teacher
education and development in Africa

F.K. Kumedzro
Centre for Continuing Education (CCE),
University of Cape Coast (UCC), Cape Coast
Teaching happens to be one of the major formal occupations that absorb a lot of people in the working class. As a profession, it requires a well thought plan to equip the professional with the requisite skills to deliver to the benefit of his clientele. Teaching practice is thus embraced in most parts of the world as an on-the-job training opportunity for would be teachers.

It is against this background that the Centre for Continuing Education (CCE), University of Cape Coast has made teaching practice an integral component of its teacher training programme. The study sought to assess the entire teaching practice concept of the C.C.E to identify any deviations from the original plan.

Four research questions were formulated and the descriptive survey method was used. All post Diploma in Basic Education students in the final year who just completed their teaching practice exercise formed part of the population. Also, the teaching practice mentors, and the DETA

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co-ordinator for teaching practice were involved in the study. In all 200 students, two mentors each from the five most populated regional study centres were randomly selected to constitute the sample. Interviews and questionnaires and frequencies and percentages were used for analysis.

The study showed that the teaching practice concept has helped to equip the teacher trainees professionally for their chosen career. It also revealed that some mentors selected to assist the centre carry out the supervisory role have not been visiting the teacher trainees in their schools as much as expected and even when they do, the supervisory role overshadows their mentoring roles. Again, it was discovered that the role of supervisors from the centre has become more occasional than regular. Some recommendations were made to reduce the impact of these findings.

Vengesai Chimininge
Zimbabwe Open University
+263 -4- 985643

History revealed to us that theological education in countries of the North tend to rely almost entirely on the seminary style approach in training members of the clergy. They constitute a three year, university level, residential training programme where potential Pastors were removed from their church and community contexts and educated through intensive lectures and seminars in the school or department of theology. Chief on the agenda of this style of education was realising an academically high level of knowledge and preserving an already ‘complete’ theology. However, with the increased mission activity of the nineteenth century and the rapid expansion of the church in the global south during the twentieth century, it quickly became clear that simply transposing this popularised conventional method of training future church leaders would not work for a number of reasons. So, the face to face approach used in many theological colleges of the time often left churches without sufficient suitable leaders. During the three years or so that identified leaders were being taught in seminary the key individuals in the church were not present. The result of which was a severely stunted church, devoid of any real leadership. Instead those who had been overlooked for theological education were forced into positions of leadership they were not trained or gifted for. This DETA

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paper seeks to assess the challenges and opportunities faced by Southern Shona Independent in using the Theological Education by Extension (TEE) model in training their pastors in Zimbabwe from 1972 to the present. The focal point of this paper is to outline the contributions made by the TEE model in reaching the learner at his work place. For this to be achieved the following questions need to be answered: What is Theological Education by Extension? What is the Shona Independent Churches? Who instituted the TEE model in teaching the Shona Independent Church members in ministry? What could be the opportunities and challenges of using TEE models in teaching members of the Shona Independent Churches Zimbabwe? What strategies can be used to improve the TEE models in training people in ministry? Documentary analysis shall be used to collect data concerning the use of TEE among the Shona Independent

Churches. Interviews will be used to collect data that has to do with the opportunities and challenges faced by churches in using the TEE approaches in training pastor in Churches as well as the recommendations that can be used in order to improve the method.

Nolutho Diko
Human Sciences Research Council, HSRC Building, 134 Pretorius Street, Pretoria. 0001.
(012) 302 2311
In order to make a clean break from the unequal structures and systems that characterized education in apartheid South Africa, post-1994 South Africa revamped the higher education system in its entirety including teacher education. The impetus for change was disbanding the old system which reproduced unequal access to quality of education and replacing it with a national teacher education system underpinned by democracy, equity, redress and transparency. A second motivation was to develop a system that would respond to individual and economic development needs in the context of responding to the goals of African Renaissance and global economies and globalization (DoE, 1996). Guided by democratic principles and ideals, the government formulated and implemented new teacher education policies. Universities were restructured accordingly; funding models, curricula and qualifications were revised. However, in addition to the new policies, systems and structures in higher education as well as intervening circumstances such as globalization, manifested through the development policy of the country and fiscal constraints, impacted teacher education with far-reaching effects. Among these effects, teaching as a profession seemed to lose its appeal to African DETA

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youth as they exercised their right to go to their institutions of choice and study fields perceived to be high status areas. Furthermore, teacher education lost its standing within universities, funding for teacher education decreased. Teacher supply began to be outstripped by demand challenges as quantitative shortages deepened in certain learning areas, the foundation phase and special needs. To remain relevant in the labour market, teacher education had to reinvent itself and distance education emerged as a major source of teacher supply in the country as enrolment numbers of students increased. Using quantitative and qualitative data collected from secondary sources, I report on how South African teacher education as a field has aptly responded to supply and demand changes in education and changes and challenges in the teacher labour market. In particular, I examine the challenges and success the field has had to withstand through strengthening distance teacher education and make recommendations for how the higher education system can be improved with regards to teacher education to advance the quality of teaching in the country.

Petronilla Gaceri
Uthiru Secondary School
Lucy Jepchumba
Ngara Girls Secondary School
The world over there has been a lot of attention and talk on improving education. In Kenya for example, part of the pillars for the country’s development anchors heavily on education. With the focus that is put on this sector, it is imperative that teacher education would also be a hot topic of discussion. It is difficult if not impossible to improve education in schools without improving teacher education. Summarily, it is important to appreciate that unless the curriculum and approach to teacher education is improved, there is likely to be little change in the approaches that teachers use in schools and as such there may be little improvement in education.

However, as much as education and teacher education has received focus on ways of improving, it is also imperative that teachers in the field and out of training colleges are given some attention. Whereas some of the developed countries have clear professional development programmes imbedded in teachers’ career path, this is lacking DETA

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in many of the developing countries Kenya included. Teachers in the field have little support system on their professional growth and in becoming better teachers.
Professional Development (PD) is crucial for teachers to ensure that they are up to date with current trends and continue learning throughout their teaching career. Lack of PD opportunities, heavy workloads, social responsibilities, inaccessibility of programmes and general lack of interest have impeded teachers’ participation in PD. In Kenya PD is yet to be a policy requirement for teachers’ growth and many teachers either are unable or unwilling to attend PD courses. To meet the urgent need for all teachers to grow professionally, PD has to be restructured, made accessible and accommodative of teachers’ unique settings.

Through this course however, we realised that teachers are not only willing to grow professionally but that technology mediated content gives teachers an extra incentive to take part in the programme. Teachers are also able to share their learning through face to face sessions and support one another when they face challenges.

In our paper we share our reflections on our initiative as Professional Development Tutors (PDTs) in developing and implementing a PD course on assessment. The course was offered though blended
learning using tablet computers known as smartQ, mobile phones, and face to face sessions once in a fortnight. This was a pilot project where we worked with 14 teachers in one community school in an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. The teachers face challenges such as heavy work load and inaccessibility of in-service PD programmes. Given these circumstances, blended learning offered a possible middle way that allowed teachers to both access PD yet meet their school and social obligations without drawing them out of their settings. To meet their unique needs, we designed a course that would only take three hours per unit to access the necessary content and prepare to implement the learning in their work. However, developing technology mediated content that is context relevant was a task that took a lot of time in getting relevant material and also finding time for face to face sessions. Sometimes we also faced challenges of smartQ failure. DETA

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Bernadette Winefrede Geduld
North-West University
0764836192 / 0182994583
Literature indicates that a positive relationship exists between selfregulated learning, the use of metacognitive skills and academic achievement. Therefore, it is crucial that open distance education students’ self-regulated learning skills be developed in order to improve their pass rate in higher education, as well as assisting them in becoming lifelong learners. Some students lack the self-regulated learning skills and metacognitive knowledge required to achieve academic success the first time round. One of the biggest learning barriers for some South African open distance education students is their previous, passive learning experiences and their dependency on educators.This means their inability to set goals, to plan, to use different learning strategies and to reflect on and monitor their own learning may hamper their academic competence and success. The significance of this research lies in the identification of these selfregulatory factors and recognising the need to support ODL students with the development of self-regulated learning and metacognitive skills by means of instruction through modelling, assessment and feedback. In this paper the discussion focuses on the challenges of interactivity in ODL teaching, ODL teacher-students’ limited use of self-regulated learning and metacognitive skills as well as factors that inhibit the use thereof. This study took place in the context of ODL at

the Potchefstroom Campus of Northwest University in South Africa. The methodology includes an explorative multi-method approach. An ex post facto quantitative approach (n=264) was used. Data was statistically analysed by means of factor analysis, multiple regression analysis and step by step regression analysis. In the qualitative phase (n=10) data was gathered in the form of semi-structured interviews and was analysed with the assistance of ATLAS.ti.6.0 - a computer assisted software. The target group comprised the total number of BEd Honours open distance learners who attended contact sessions for the specific semester. Contradictory to the literature, the findings indicate a weak correlation between the factors of self-regulated learning and academic success. Students still attained academic success because of a high degree of external regulation by lecturers and peer support. Therefore it brings into question the higher order cognitive abilities and lifelong learning skills of ODL students and how it is instructed. The implications of the findings suggest that pedagogical approaches should be adapted in ODL to facilitate the development of students’ self-regulated learning skills and metacognitive knowledge.

Keywords: self-regulated learning, metacognition, academic
success, interactivity


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Facilitation of learning is a key factor for success in distance learning. Achieving successes normally realized through contact teaching, were crucial to how we developed the modules. These are factors associated with modeling lessons by lecturers, practical engagement of students in developing teaching and learning materials, demonstration of using them to maximise learner performance and tutorial sessions which allowed student teachers to engage with one another as a ‘community of practice’. Therefore as a department Early Childhood Education we needed to understand the e-learning environment in general and in particular how to facilitate the teaching of reading through distance education that will call for active distance student participation.

Joubert, Ina (PhD)
University of Pretoria
Department Early Childhood Education
(012) 420 5636
Fax: (012) 420 5595
Phatudi, Nkidi (PhD)
University of Pretoria
Department Early Childhood Education
(012) 420 5641
Fax: (012) 420 5595

As we developed the framework of the programme and the content of the literacy modules we became conversant about the learning principles for effective facilitation of online learning. At first we explored the strategies and activities possible in an online learning environment, considering each of the learning principles within the stages of online learning promoted by Salmon. Then we learnt about facilitating learning through the use of synchronous and asynchronous communication tools like list services, discussions, chat tools, quizzes and online assignments.

Ledwaba, Gloria
University of Pretoria
Department Early Childhood Education
(012) 420 5516
Fax: (012) 420 5595
The aim of this paper is to share our perspectives on and experiences of the development of a new Foundation Phase programme for
distance education at the University of Pretoria. We will in addition share how we addressed the challenges we were facing to ensure that the programme was geared towards improving the access to and quality of education.

The absence of what we would call ‘role models’ of teachers and teaching context, made us opt for a blended learning model which included hard copy materials, multi-media products, e-learning facilities, as well as face-to-face interaction through contact/tutorial sessions. In terms of the teaching of literacy, we included DVD’s and CD’s. The DVD’s are based on classroom practices as well as scenarios of case studies. For example one of the DVD’s include a lesson on the facilitation of reading in an authentic Grade 1 classroom. The DVD’s also include power points on content and skills such as the teaching of phonics in English and the process of creative writing. They also contain reflective questions. These sections form part of DETA

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students’ self- reflective assignments that will be submitted as part of formative assessment. In addition, the self reflective sections will be used for discussions during contact sessions to enhance interaction between the lecturer and the students. As handwriting skills may be challenging to teach through distance education, we included a CD with the Grade 1 font which can be downloaded on a computer. With this tool teacher can make neat word cards to teach sight words and vocabulary.

It is our intention to employ action research to enhance the quality of the programme. We intend to use data such as feedback on the assignments and questionnaires from our students. As this framework is original and new we will need to adopt it - but it will change as we learn during the course of delivery.

Dr Judith Wanene Kamau
Director, Directorate of Open and Distance Learning
Kenya Methodist University
The delivery of teacher education through open and distance learning (ODL) has been in practice in Africa for more than 40 years. As they attained their independence in the early nineteen sixties and faced with rising populations, many countries in Africa found themselves with unfathomable levels of illiteracy at all levels of education. Attempts to initiate universal primary education, secondary education and alleviate illiteracy were thwarted by lack of qualified teachers in an environment where teacher training institutions were limited and far between. Faced with this situation, many governments embraced ODL to generate qualified teachers who were urgently required for the implementation of universal primary education, secondary education and alleviation of illiteracy among the adult population, and as a result kick start economic development. Since that time, different ODL models ranging from the examination or correspondence model to the current multimedia approach, single and dual mode organizational models and consortia have been used to provide initial training for pre-service and untrained teachers and/or upgrade qualifications for serving teachers. This paper, explores different ODL models and approaches in the delivery of teacher education with special reference to the experience derived from the Diploma in Primary Education in Botswana.


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Except for the delivery mode and to maintain parity standards, the Diploma in Primary Education by ODL in Botswana was based on the same curriculum as the pre-service programme. The organizational model in the design and development of learning materials, methods and strategies of instruction, media application, learning support services, management and financing of the programme involved a number of key players with different responsibilities. To inform best practice this paper further explores policy initiatives and implications as enabling factors, and the challenges encountered during the development and implementation of this programme. The lessons learnt during the delivery of the distance taught Diploma in Primary Education in Botswana provide interesting experiences for teacher educators using ODL for training and development of teachers.

Dr. Harriet J. Kidombo,Prof. Christopher M. Gakuu,
Dr. Omondi Bowa
School of Continuing and Distance Education,
University of Nairobi
+254 722 734058,
Workforce flexibility is an employment strategy that has emerged as a response to cut costs and improve efficiency. It is a firm’s capability to reconfigure, expand, or contract its human resources and processes according to changes in business conditions. Flexibility focuses on alternative work arrangements such as the use of contractual and temporary workers. It involves a set of activities that the firm pursues to change its human resources and processes according to changed environmental and organizational requirements. The changing life style preferences and career patterns of people demanding for more leisure time, less rigidity in working time and more control of their time has also hastened the adoption of flexible work patterns. This paper looks at the concept of workforce flexibility in the context of distance education. It is noted that distance education is an industrialised form of teaching and learning where management practices such as the composition and employment patterns of human resources management are defined by the prevailing work conditions at any given time. This paper explores the relevance of the concept of workforce flexibility in distance education using the model of the ‘flexible firm’ advanced by Atkinson (1984). This model focused on the DETA

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type of contracts offered by employers and proposed a differentiation between a core workforce of full-time permanent employees, for whom functional flexibility was seen to be appropriate; and a peripheral workforce of part-time, temporary and sub-contractual workers for whom numerical flexibility was relevant. Empirical findings derived from an analysis of the composition of employees and other service providers engaged in various programmes in the School of Continuing and Distance Education, University of Nairobi supports the flexible firm model. It is concluded, however, that while workforce flexibility has many financial advantages for the employer, it can reduce commitment and loyalty, hence should it be the norm or exception?

Mombasa Technical University PO Box 90420-80100,
+254-0734 658544/700506636 (Kenya)
+27-826946656/743803779 (South Africa)
+254- 041-2495632(f)
The Kenya government has encouraged distance learning (DL)
as a solution to the many candidates who qualify and miss out on admission to local universities. The number of those who miss out is now running to hundreds of thousands. Professionals and individuals believe that higher education is the only way out of poverty. Most teachers have exploited this opportunity to the maximum and have taken advantage of the school based programmes also known as in service training and other forms of distance education. This mode of teacher education has a direct impact on the products (graduates) of the schools/universities whom these teachers teach. While the minister for higher education (Kamar, 2013) has encouraged universities to start 24 hour programmes to meet these challenges. (Kinyanjui, 2007) observes that as we increase access to higher education quality and standards must not be compromised. With the popularity of distance learning however it is widely accepted that these distance learning students including teachers are not getting adequate access to library and information services like their on-campus or full time colleagues. This paper argues that without adequacy of this vital DETA

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research infrastructure which is a pre-requisite of any higher learning institution the learning process of distance learners will not be the same as their traditional students and is likely to result in academic discrimination. It looks at the school based/ distance education concept in Kenya and some parts of Africa and examines the efforts which are being made by two Kenyan universities to meet the information needs of distance learners in their universities. Lack of collaboration between information personnel/librarians, scarce funding, lack of ICT infrastructure and cumbersome procurement procedures and other various factors leading to inadequacy and inefficiency in regard to provision of library services and e-resources are highlighted. As a conclusion possible solutions and recommendations are offered.

Atieno Kili K’Odhimbo
Department of Educational Foundations,
University of Nairobi
Teacher-parent partnership in the education of learners with special needs like those with autistic condition has not been accorded the prerequisite philosophical attention by institutions that train teachers in Kenya. A look at the teacher education curriculum and the pedagogical enterprise of practising teachers, teacher-parent partnership is wanting. This calls for a collaborative relationship between teachers and parents, which is premised on philosophy. This study uses speculation as a metaphysical methodology to postulate the grounding of teacher-partnership on philosophy of education that can enhance the overall education of autistic learners. The paper proposes that knowledge and understanding are founded on philosophy and learners with special needs like autistic ones are likely to gain educationally when relationship between teachers and parents is pedagogically cordial.


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To address the problem of this study, three (3) research questions were formulated. The study used descriptive survey. The population of the study was made up of all Diploma and Post-Diploma students pursuing Basic Education who were on off campus teaching practice during 2011/2012 academic year, all mentors used for teaching practice, regional resident tutors and the heads of practicing schools. The sample for the study was made up of three hundred and fifty (350) respondents from five (5) randomly selected regional study centres.

Felix Kumedzro
Centre for Continuing Education,
University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Samuel Ampofo
Centre for Continuing Education,
University of Cape Coast, Ghana
Teaching practice is a key component of teacher education programs. It is during the period of practice teaching that student-teachers are expected to apply education theories learnt into practice. Through practice teaching, student-teachers learn to teach by teaching and thus become competent and efficient school teachers. The Centre for Continuing Education ,University of Cape Coast, regards teaching practice as an important aspect of its basic teacher education program and uses this model to provide the environment that supports teachers in their continuing professional development.

The main instrument for data collection was researcher-made
questionnaires. The Cronbach’s co-efficient alpha measure of internal consistency was used in determining the reliability of the questionnaires for the study. Descriptive data analyses were used to answer the research questions. The result of the study has shown that students’ attitudes have not been encouraging towards teaching practice and mentors were not playing effective role in helping students to develop the appropriate competencies.The organization of the teaching practice was also found to be cumbersome. In the light of these findings, recommendations were made to enhance the organization of the teaching practice.

The 21st century teacher needs to be adequately trained and
inculcated with positive attitude that will enable him or her go through the training properly and come out well equipped for professional delivery. However, of recent, student teachers attitude to teaching practice is generating a lot of concerns among stakeholders in the education sector. This study therefore sort to examine the challenges associated with teaching practice for distance learners at the University of Cape Coast, Ghana.


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reading difficulties. However, there is little research on the effectiveness of curriculum adaptations in supporting such learners.

Raesetja Gloria Ledwaba
University of Pretoria
Department Early Childhood Education
(012) 420 5516

The purpose of this paper is to explore experiences of post graduate distance education students who specialises on Special Needs on how they adapt curriculum in supporting learners with reading difficulties.Twelve teachers were purposefully selected to participate in the focus group. Findings in this study include (i) Teachers have knowledge and understanding about categories of curriculum adaptation such as: learning environment, content, time, resources, teaching strategies and assessment. (ii) Teachers also reported the discrepancies in training and practice. (iii) Teachers have finally expressed several challenges they experienced on curriculum adaptation in supporting diverse needs of learners with reading difficulties. Implications and recommendations based on this study are reported.

Motlapule Ruth Mampane
University of Pretoria
Department Educational Psychology
(012) 420 2339
Since 1994 when the Salamanca statement was adopted, the field of Inclusive education has focussed on diversity in schools. Apart from several training sessions that were conducted nationally to capacitate teachers in teaching learners with diverse needs, teachers are still challenged to address the needs of learners who present with learning difficulties, including reading. Often this leads to these children being physically accommodated in the classroom, but isolated in terms of active participation.

In narrowing the gap between teachers’s knowledge and practice most universities developed teacher training programs to provide them with insight knowledge and understanding on how to include and support learners experiencing learning problems such as reading. Literature indicates that one of the practical aspects for Inclusivity is curriculum adaptation, which is critical when teaching learners with


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electricity. The students have multiple demands on their time and, therefore, find distance education to meet their needs better than campus based education. To reach students with diverse socioeconomic needs, the program uses a combined mode of delivery methods and practices used in all the four generations of distance education.

Wisdom Machacha
Director, Center for Distance Education
Catholic University of Mozambique
+258 823 055 837

Keywords: distance education, e-learning, mode of delivery,

Prof. Martin Dwomoh-Tweneboah
Professor, Linfield College of Arts and Science
Visiting Professor, Center for Distance Education
Catholic University of Mozambique
+1 (503) 883-2426
Distance education in Africa relies on different modes of delivery depending on the locality and resources available to students. Like the sophists of ancient Greece who toured the Greek cities to teach students to be successful in public speaking and conduct of life, the distance education program at Catholic University of Mozambique employs different modes of delivery to take education to its distant learners irrespective of their location and resources available to them. This paper discusses the various delivery methods and practices Catholic University of Mozambique uses to implement its distance learning program. The program has over 8,000 students located all over Mozambique. Some of the students are working adults (teachers and civil servants) who have no access to internet, live in very remote areas not accessible by road, and even lack basic amenities like DETA

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By Mahao Mahao
National University of Lesotho
In 2009, Lesotho’s curriculum underwent a major overhaul since independence in 1966. Some subjects have remained constant
amidst these changes while new ones such as Life Skills have made in-roads into our education system. What is obvious is that subjects which are not compulsory, such as Literature in English, have to fight to claim their relevance in the context where students seem drawn towards the monetary value of each area of specialization upon completion of their university studies. While English Language, Sesotho, Mathematics and Science have remained compulsory for all students at both primary and secondary level, Literature in English together with subjects such as History, Geography, Development Studies and Religion have to compete for attention among students in the context of rising levels of materialism where certain subjects are deemed to promise very little in terms of monetary gains. This study seeks to establish from five teacher trainees specializing in Literature in English the value they attach to their teaching subject. Preliminary results point to some interesting angles in their thinking. While they view Literature in English as a valuable subject, they do not view it as the most important in the curriculum’s pecking order despite having chosen it out of many areas of specialization. Questionnaires have been used to gather data and the choice of just five trainees is meant to elicit as much as possible from the thinking of the trainees. My interest is in the qualitative nature of their responses.

Why did you choose to teach Literature in English? (What influenced your choice?)
According to you should a choice of specialization be influenced by the amount of money one is likely to earn or by the love of the subject? Give reasons.
Literature in English has been in Lesotho’s curriculum even before independence in 1966. Do you think it remains relevant in today’s context? Please explain how__________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________



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What do you foresee being able to gain from a career in Literature? Do you sometimes regret that you chose a career in Literature? Why / why not? ___________________________________________________________


Thank you

Would you encourage your own children to study Literature at the highest level and follow a career in it?____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Please rank the following subjects (starting with the most important and ending with the least important) according to your own perceived order of importance: Sesotho, Religion, Development Studies, English Language, Mathematics, Literature in English, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, Information Technology, Commerce



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incentive or promotions. Teachers voluntarily register for the programme to gain essential skills necessary to assist learners who experience barriers to learning and to implement the inclusive education policy. In spite of the teachers’ intrinsic motivation to register for the programme, they struggle to use and apply the provided programme knowledge in their own learning, and seem to fail to identify, access and utilise the available assets and resources (support structures) the university provides in order for them to successfully complete their qualification on record time. This paper seeks to investigate barriers that teachers experience in their learning. It is the assumption of the researchers that, even though ACE: SNE purports to prepare teachers with skills, knowledge, attitudes and values to assess and support learners who experience barriers to learning (emotional, behavioural and/or learning difficulties) the majority of teachers struggle to successfully apply the intended skills on their own learning. Informal interviews with participants will be conducted and thematically analysed using an eco-systemic framework. Ultimately, knowledge of barriers experienced by students will inform development of the programme and if possible incorporation of new ways of thinking about available resources and assets in the context of distance education programmes in South Africa and other developing countries.

Motlalepule Ruth Mampane
University of Pretoria
+27 12 420 4146
Tilda Loots
University of Pretoria
27 12 420 2339 / +27 82 8765 278
Oelofson, Melanie
+27 12 420 2339
University of Pretoria
Teacher professional development programmes are central in improving teachers’ quality of teaching and developing their thinking and practice skills. However, statistics (Unit of Distance Education, University of Pretoria) show that a few teachers succeed in completing these programmes within eighteen months while a greater number of teachers experience barriers to learning (remaining in the programme for longer than four years which contributes to poor institutional throughput rate1). In South Africa, teachers who register for the Advanced Certificate in Special Needs Education (ACE: SNE) do not receive government 1The ACE: SNE programme consists of three cycles with two modules per cycle. Although the duration of each cycle is 6 months, students have some flexibility in structuring their own academic cycles according to their individual needs. This allows for a student to successfully complete the full programme within 18 months. Students are granted eight examination cycles and thus a maximum of two examination opportunities per module.

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Dr Sharon Thabo Mampane
University of Pretoria
A new role for Distance Education (DE) facilitators at the University of Pretoria has been introduced, recognized and encouraged to determine DE success and improvement. Since DE has increased and changed over the years in the way facilitators and students interact, intense changes in how instruction and support is designed and delivered across time and space should become apparent, however, to date, not much attention has been paid to the new role required of leaders within DE institutions. DE institutions need leaders who have reflected on their experiences and internalized understandings about their own capacity to lead. The new facilitator role requires of institutions practising distance education to be more receptive and adaptive to opportunities for improving the success of DE. This paper explores the role and impact of a group leader in distance education settings, so as to offer insights and suggestions for best practices to those involved in, or aspiring to leadership roles in DE. Leadership is a crucial factor for education effectiveness and organisational success and improvement, thus, DEGLs have to establish a healthy relationship and group cohesion among facilitators at DE Contact Sessions (CS) as well as ensure that basic requirements for better facilitator delivery of modules are met.

lect seven participants each from the two provinces, Gauteng and Limpopo that served as research sites. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews from facilitators involved in the DE B.ED Honors (Education Management) programme. This paper examined recent research and writing in this area, and identified research gaps in skills and competences necessary for leading groups of facilitators at DE. The findings from the study revealed that facilitators though having good interactions with facilitator groups, facilitators ascribed this group cohesion to experienced facilitators who knew what was expected of them and carried out their responsibilities well. The facilitators recommended that group leadership be on a rotational basis since excellent leadership to facilitator groups was determined by facilitator commitment, hard work, and support which minimised the need for micromanagement by the group leader. These findings may inform organisations using group leader components at DE contact sessions of strategies to use when appointing facilitators for group leadership at DE contact sessions.

Keywords: Distance Education; contact session; group leader; facilitator; training; assessment; Distance Education programme.

This paper was conducted through a qualitative research and within the interpretive paradigm. Purposeful sampling was used to seDETA

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be treated as the emerging standard of quality in higher education and can effectively perform a complementary function, which should alleviate teacher shortage in Kenya.
Keywords: Distance education, face-to-face learning, teaching practice

Dr. Guantai Mboroki and Dr. Lydiah Wambugu
Generally, education is considered one of the biggest instruments for development; a means for realizing social, cultural, economic and political needs and aspirations. However, in many African educational institutions there is an enormous challenge in training a cadre of highly qualified professionals to fuel such development. There are inadequate educational resources, due to loss of the best talented faculty to the developed world. In addition, contemporary educational thought holds that one of the pivotal causes of inadequate school performance is the inability of schools to adequately staff classrooms with qualified teachers, especially in fields such as mathematics and science (Gordon and Thomas, 2007, p.43). To address the issue of teacher shortages in Kenya, some single mode universities converted themselves into dual-mode. Among them is the University of Nairobi. Apparently, the belief among academics is that conventional

education is real education. This makes distance education to act as complementary and worse of all supplementary. This paper
sets out to compare whether there is a significant difference in TP performance between B.Ed (Science) Distance and on-campus
students. A sample of 181 students: face-to-face n=131 vs. distance learning n= 50 students was used. The instrument of data collection was an observation guide. Though students taking courses by oncampus mode outperformed their counterparts in the distance mode of learning, this paper will conclude that with the inclusion of e-learning component courtesy of AVU, distance learning should


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Dr. John Mbugua
University of Nairobi
Dr. Omondi Bowa
University of Nairobi
Prof. Christopher Gakuu
University of Nairobi
Dr. Guantai Mboroki
University of Nairobi
In many countries distance learning has been adopted and has had significant success in terms of accommodating large number of students at the same time. Despite Distance Education (DE) mode of learning having been introduced in Kenya in the 1960’s at the University of Nairobi, only a few students are reported to have completed various courses through the mode. This study seeks to establish how level of awareness of educational managers about DE mode of learning in Western Region of Kenya influences their

support for the DE mode of learning. The objective of this paper is to examine the extent to which the level of awareness of educational managers about ODL mode of delivery influences their support for the mode of leaning in the western region of Kenya. The data collected was analyzed using both qualitative and qualitative techniques. An hypothesis was also tested at 0.05 level of significance using Chisquare statistical test to address the phenomenon. The findings showed that educational managers’ support for DE mode of learning was influenced by their level of awareness about DE mode of learning. The study recommended that teacher training institutions should revise their syllabi to include DE units in their new courses. This would expose students undergoing educational courses to appreciate Distance Education mode of delivery, that is, its strengths, weaknesses and suitability in various situations. Further a major campaign also needs to be organized to sensitize existing educational managers of the effectiveness and efficiency of DE mode of learning. A good number of educational managers are still not fully exposed to distance education mode of learning despite their background in education and their work experiences in the education sector. More research also needs to be conducted to establish the situational effectiveness of various modes of learning. This would allow stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding appropriate mode of learning, taking cognizance of prevailing circumstances. It is further recommended that the government should review its policy on education to provide an enabling environment for employees / students undergoing DE programmes while working.

Keywords: Distance Learning, Distance Mode of Delivery,
Education Managers, Distance Education Suppport


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who take up distance education coordination positions and the nonexistence of formal structures that value the position of the distance education coordinators.
The above strategy has not been a stand-alone approach, a more holistic strategy was used, mainly to ensure sustainability in the professionalization of college staff. A platform has been established for distance education coordinators of the colleges of education. In this forum they regularly discuss their successes and challenges in establishing distance education programmes, including the progress they made on standards of the spidergram. The platform is also used to train distance education coordinators on shared topics of interest. The colleges have together agreed to keep this platform up and running even without receiving external support.

Leonie Meijerink
VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and
Technical Assistance)
+211 255154(f)
In Zambia a few institutions have been offering distance education for many years. Since 2008 nation-wide all government supported colleges of education have started to develop distance diploma programmes for teacher training. Since a lot of colleges are relatively new to distance education the Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance (VVOB) together with the Ministry of Education supported colleges in a six year Teacher Training Support programme. The approach used has been holistic by combining top-down as well as needs-driven strategies, using the aim to develop quality distance education programmes as a cornerstone. The Ministry of Education in consultation with stakeholders have developed guidelines for Open Distance Learning (ODL), as the first country in the SADC region. A simplification of these guidelines was made by developing and training colleges in the use of a spidergram tool, which provides a visualisation of the status of and progress towards nine quality standards.

Besides the more top-down strategies, efforts were made to support motivated individuals to learn from other institutions by making a ‘visit for change’. Colleges have appreciated these visits and at some colleges principals have already started to approve visits internally, without receiving external financial support. Also colleges have been enabled to identify in-house training of their preference.

Finally the National In-Service Teacher Training College has been supported to develop a diploma course for Open Distance Learning Professionals, so that continuity of professionalization in the area of ODL is guaranteed. The course has started with two members of staff from each college of education, including the distance education coordinator of the colleges.

In the article a further debate will be initiated on which support strategies are expected to be sustainable and which are not, based on the experiences of the above described six year programme.

From a recent review the spidergram has been valued highly as an important tool to measure and reflect on quality, especially by distance education coordinators. However colleges have mostly used the tool for internal assessment purposes. The spidergram is yet to be used as triangulation tool with critical reflections from other parties, such as Ministry staff and students. One of the main challenges identified for ensuring sustainability of the tool is the regular rotation of staff DETA

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Kitila A.K. Mkumbo
Dar es Salaam University College of Education, P O Box 2329 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Ms GK Mokwena
School of Educational Studies
Department of Adult Basic Education & Youth Development
University of South Africa
B ox 392
Tel: 012 429-8228

This study examined the level of and factors associated with teachers’ motivation and commitment to the teaching profession in Tanzania. Data were collected quantitatively using questionnaire on teachers’ motivation and commitment to the teaching profession involving a randomly selected sample of 303 teachers. The results show that the majority of teachers were motivated to join and stay in the teaching profession due to intrinsic, rather than extrinsic, factors such as intellectual curiosity and feelings of belongingness to learning community. The results also show that the majority of teachers have very low level of commitment to the teaching profession. For example, just about a third of the teachers surveyed reported that they would choose teaching profession if they were to consider choosing it again. The level of commitment to the teaching profession is associated with the school ownership category, whether a school is privately or publicly owned, and the level teaching qualification.

Key Words: Teachers’ commitment, teachers’ motivation, teaching profession, Tanzania

Prof. K P Quan-Baffour
School of Educational Studies
Department of Adult Basic Education & Youth Development
University of South Africa
B ox 392
Tel: 012 429-6870
The concept of a ‘community college’ might mean a different thing to many people in South Africa.   In this paper central issues relating to a community college are explored.  These include an exploration of the relationship between Mercy Winterveldt as a ‘community college’ and the broader community, the characteristics that define a ‘community college’ and what might be gained by achieving formal recognition as a ‘community college’.  The qualitative enquiry in the form of a case study was used to address the question of what constitutes a community college. The findings indicated that a community college DETA

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can be defined in terms of a commitment to humanitarian principles and to serve the disadvantaged in a community, a policy of partnerships with others in the community and the acknowledgement of the need for people to become empowered by helping them to help themselves.  The study concludes that a community college should have a wider outreach to cater for the illiterate, semi-literate and unskilled adults in the remote areas of a community in order to qualify to be called a community college.

Key Words: Community college, participation, redress, access, service

M. Mukwambo and A. Zulu
UNAM Katima Mulilo Campus
Situated cognition emerged as an instructional model in 1989 (Vygotsky in Crain 1992: 21). As a model of teaching and learning, it emphasizes designing “bridging apprenticeship” to close the gap between theoretical learning of Science and Mathematics in the classroom and real-life application of the knowledge in a work environment (Resnick, 1987). While undergoing apprenticeship with a community of members in practice applying science and mathematics knowledge in a work environment, learners collaborate, are coached, reflect, experience multiple practices and then articulate (Lave, & Wenger, 1991).

It is noted that socio-economic and political status in which schools emerged explains why some schools do not have work environments to apprentice learners. This is not only noticeable in the Caprivi Region of Namibia where the study took place but in most developing countries. Learning of science especially during colonialism became premised on the dominant Western cultures manifest in the teaching and learning approaches in Science and Mathematics

To close the gap created by lack of suitable students’ placements, to engage situated cognition by teachers the study investigated the use of indigenous knowledge (IK) as an alternative to work environments. DETA

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Learners in science and mathematics were apprenticed to sites where the community members apply IK such as pottery. Pottery, for example, reflects a lot of science and mathematics but teachers sometimes “distance” themselves from this knowledge (Odora-Hoppers, 2002). It is noted that School science discusses materials where clay is hardened using heat but sometimes teachers hardly incorporate this IK based on community activities. Furthermore, Mathematics concepts come as patterns which are seen drawn on these cultural artifacts of clay but teachers hardly relate these experiences yet mathematics is the science of patterns.

This qualitative study anchored on cultural historical activity theory (CHAT) and socio-cultural theory. It used interviews, observations which entertained clinical supervision using four teachers. What emerged is that teachers in the Caprivi Region of Namibia initially viewed the designing of a situated cognition lesson as impossible but IK sites were found as an alternative to work environments. Some of the recommendations are: (a).Teachers should be sensitized to use IK as a substitute for work environments. (b). Equip learners and teachers with pedagogical content and technical content knowledge, (c). Community members as users of IK can collaborate in science and mathematics discourses and (d). The study opened a way on future research on how other concepts in science and mathematics can be handled as IK is used as an alternative to work environments.

Crain, W, (1992): Theories of Development, New Jersey, Prentice Hall. Lave, J & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

Odora-Hoppers, C. A. (2001). Indigenous knowledge systems and academic institutions in South Africa. Perspectives in Education, 19(1), 73-83.
Resnick, L. (1987). Learning in school and out. Educational
Researcher, Vol. 16, No. 9, pp. 13-20.


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trainers. Data was collected by the use of questionnaires, observation schedules and unstructured interviews.

Caroline Waruguru Ndirangu and Grace Nyagah
Department of Educational Administration and Planning
University of Nairobi, Kenya. 2013
The Kenya government in partnership with the Japanese government took the initiative to address the poor performance of learners in science subjects at secondary level by building the capacity of teachers through the Strengthening of Mathematics and Science Secondary Education (SMASSE) in-service training.The in-service training intervention is constructivist,

emphasing on Activityfocused methods, Student-Centered activities, Experimenting and Improvisation (ASEI) through the Plan, Do, See, and Improve (PDSI) approach in science classrooms, referred to as ASEI/PDSI classroom practices. Despite the in-service training the performance of students in these subjects has remained low. The change facilitators very often presume that once an innovation has been adopted and the intial training has been completed, the intended users will put it into practice. Implementation of an innovation is seldom so simple without support. This study therefore set out to establish the level of implementation of the ASEI/PDSI classroom practices of the three science subjects and to identify the Stages of Concerns of both the head teachers and the teachers in relation to implementation. Survey design with a sample of 68 head teachers, 147 science teachers and 10 SMASSE district

The study established that majority, 70% of the teachers were implementing the ASEI/PDSI classroom practices innovation partially whereas only less than 5% were implementing fully. The main
concerns of the implementers fell in three main categories; self, task and impact. Majority of the head teachers had self concerns, while most of the teachers had task concerns. There was a relationship between the stages of concerns and the level of implementation. The findings indicated that implementers who had self concerns were not implementing the ASEI/PDSI practices and those with impact concerns were implementing the innovation. The study recommended that the head teachers and the innovators of ASEI/PDSI classroom practices need to urgently address the self and task concerns of the teachers so that they can start implementing the ASEI/PDSI fully. According to studies carried out by Hord (2006) concerns are not fixed so appropriate support and assistance should be given to the teachers to deliver interventions that might respond to their individual concerns.


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Simon Peter Ngalomba
School of Education
University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, East Africa

Ocansey, S1 ., Gyimah, E.K2
Department Of Educational Foundations,
University Of Cape Coast Ghana
Department Of Educational Foundations,
University Of Cape Coast Ghana

This paper seek to investigate whether mentoring process in teacher training is an essential ingredient and specifically focus on the roles of various stakeholders involved in preparing student-teachers towards becoming full-equipped teachers. To gain deep understanding

student-teachers from both public and private universities in Tanzania participating in 2011/2012 academic year teaching practice (TP), head of schools, subject teachers, university supervisors, TP regional coordinators and universities TP coordinators were involved in the study. Documentary review, questionnaires, interviews and observations tools were used to collect data. This study shows that effective teacher preparation require university-school relationship to mentor prospective teachers. A conceptual framework for appropriate TP is presented and discussed, focusing on the key stakeholders: head of school, subject teacher, university TP supervisor working in tandem with common goal to help student-teacher. Case study design used in the study. The study population segmented into strata to represent the various sub-group in the population, therefore, first stratification and then simple random sampling used.

Study concluded that, mentoring of student-teachers at university, during TP as well as after being employed is an essential and must undertaking for effective preparation of competent and motivated teachers.

Testing as a means of assessment has been of tremendous
benefit to educational institutions. In recent times however, the predominantly negative impact of test anxiety on test outcomes has been a source of concern both to students and educators
worldwide. The causes of test anxiety are many and varied but understanding them could help in managing the current test anxiety situation. The study was a descriptive research design involving a total sample size of 215 final year students and 161 first year students from the Faculty of Education in the University of Cape Coast. Through the convenient and purposive sampling methods 172 final year students and 131 first year students were selected to respond to a 29 item self-designed questionnaire. The remaining 43 final year students and 30 first year students were involved in 4 separate Focused Group Discussions. The study revealed that fear of examination failure, improper preparation for examinations and the rigidity of the grading system at the University of Cape Coast are typical causes of test anxiety among both year groups of students. It was thus recommended that counsellors on the University campus encourage students to plan their study times effectively and commence serious studies once school reopens to enable them derive better benefits from their studies.


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Key Words: Test anxiety, examination, counselling, fear of failure, worrying, panicking

Jeckoniah Ogeda Odumbe
Centre for Open and Distance Learning
University of Nairobi
+254 720 714 346
Open and Distance Education and Learning are strategy of providing education to learners who are generally separated from the institution and their teachers in space and time through the use of a variety of media. They therefore, lend themselves to offering/providing education to persons or learners who cannot attend classes due to work engagement, geographical barriers or lack of space in the conventional institutions. This paper discusses application of open and distance education and learning in addressing teacher education needs and challenges in Kenya by selected higher education

institutions and understanding of the models used in terms of media choice and media mix and the institutional setting for delivering training of the programmes. The presentation explains the teachers role in knowledge creation as a contribution to the realization of the country’s long term blue print for development as expressed in the Vision 2030

The data and information for this paper were obtained through documentary analysis, observations and interviews.


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The paper starts by providing conceptual understanding of the models of distance learning based on: Media mix and media provision for the practice of open and distance learning delivery modes; The institutional set-up for delivering distance education programmes and; Academic, pastoral, administrative and infrastructural Learners’ support requirements.

Secondly the presentation discusses selected educational challenges in the teaching profession over the years in Kenya in terms of: Incompetence to handle teaching due to either low subject competence of the teacher in relation to the class level expectation or Lack of professional competence required for effective teaching or Copying with large enrolment due to policy changes or Insufficient space and inappropriate modes to the learners situations.

The paper concludes that for:
Quality framework outside Kenya Institute Curriculum Development and Commission for University Education for general harmonization of the practice of distance education in Kenya is needed.
Distance education has a major role in addressing teacher education characterized by changing environment and educational demands for practicing teachers.
Distance education has prospects of addressing general education needs and challenges beyond teacher education.

Thirdly the paper discusses the programmes and provision for quality assurance at national level and institutional level to ensure that the education delivered provides the learners/trainees with quality training comparable to the conventional teacher education and the issues of parity or standard across the institutions.

Fourthly the paper assesses the contribution of these open and distance initiatives in terms of outcomes of numbers trained who help meeting the teaching for expanded secondary education, and other uses of self instructional materials developed for programmes and their influence and impact in the region.

Fifthly the paper discusses the challenges experienced in the use of odel in teacher education from the learners and implementers point of views.


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in distance education in the University of Nairobi. Data obtained were analyzed and the findings reported in this paper.

Jeckoniah Ogeda Odumbe,
Centre for Open and Distance Learning
University of Nairobi
P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi 00100
+254 720 714 346

This paper discusses the structural setting put in place which enables the centre to undertake its tasks and mandate through collaboration with internal schools, faculties, centres and institutes. In particular, the paper describes the specific five units of the Centre which are key in implementing distance education activities and operations. The paper further elaborates on the operations of the processes taken by the Centre in the implementation which involves the sensitization of Schools, Faculties,Centres and Institutes, material development in print and electronic forms, quality assurance mechanisms, the coordination arrangements for programmes and the learners support services.

Dr Charles Misiko Wafula,
Centre for Open and Distance Learning
University of Nairobi
+254 725 164 808
This paper discusses the practices and experiences of the Centre for Open and Distance Learning in developing distance education in the University of Nairobi. The Centre for Open and Distance Learning which is an independent unit of the University is mandated to collaborate with internal Schools, Faculties, Institutes and Centres to develop Distance education for diversification, access and enrichment of the learning/teaching system of the University of Nairobi. Data for this paper was obtained through documentary analysis, observation, reports of the activities and interviews with stakeholders

The paper discusses the conventional options of providing instructional materials namely through adoption, adaption, developing or a combination of the stated options. The paper discusses the practice at the Centre for Open and Distance Learning which is based largely on developing their own self instructional materials because of the uniqueness of the University of Nairobi programmes, but uses other sources for additional academic support. The centre plays the role of instructional designing and managing the processes while the collaborating academic departments are responsible for subject content.

This paper elucidates the role of the Centre for Open and Distance Learning in providing orientation to subject tutors for efficient and effective tutoring and to learners for copying with the requirements and expectations of open and distance education.

The paper also discusses the challenges that are faced by the Centre for Open and Distance Learning and the collaborating units in implementing distance education programs in the university.

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Finally the paper discusses the outcomes which include: instructional materials developed and used for diversification, increased access and enriched learning process; new open and distance programs developed and mounted; increased competency of faculty members; better co-ordination of open and distance learning programs of the University; greater university visibility locally and internationally and better teaching.

In conclusion, the paper recommends that open and distance using integrated media should be embraced in all academic programmes of the University of Nairobi as it can provide solutions to the challenges such as space, staff workload, academic resources and flexibility to learners. In addition open and distance learning should be used to address educational challenges of increasing access, in servicing the workforce and providing flexible mode of education in Kenya and the region.

University of Pretoria
Pretoria, South Africa
Distance education provides opportunity and access for historically disadvantaged social groups in South Africa to obtain higher education. The University of Pretoria offers an Advanced Certificate in Education (ACE): Education Management as part of its Distance Education Programme to in-service teachers who wish to upgrade their qualifications and enhance their education management skills. One of the strategies used by the University to support student is through contact sessions. The purpose of contact sessions is to provide opportunity for students to interact with the course facilitators and their peers to enhance their learning ability. There is lack of knowledge as to whether there are barriers to leaning during contact sessions or not. The aim of this study was to establish if there are barriers to learning during contact session and determine what can be done to maximize the potential of contact session as a learning support structure. The research consisted of semistructured interviews with ten students who attended contact a session. The participants were five female and five male students. The purpose of the interviews was to explore their perceptions of the possible barriers to learning during contact session. A qualitative constant comparative analysis was used in this study to analyse the data. The factors identified by the students as barriers to learning DETA

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during contact sessions are reported. Strategies for overcoming the barriers are discussed and the implications of the findings in terms of learning support structure and services are made.


Key words: Distance Education; learner support, leaning, barriers/ challenges; qualitative analysis.

Olalekan Elijah Ojedokun
Institute of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. 220005. Osun State, Nigeria /
+2348057333448 / +2348163247820
Environmental Education is a core course taught as part of the Nigerian Social Studies teacher education programme in both fulltime and distance learning modes; hence undergraduates must be provided with learning contents that are of high quality, especially those that bother on two fundamental explanations associated with understanding of the subject matter of sustainability and the development of desirable attitudes – science and culture . This essay thus examines the likely impact that culture and science can make on the teaching of a section of environmental education in the Nigerian Social Studies teacher education curriculum. The essay is guided by a Social Studies curriculum template, with a view to assessing the amenability of Social Studies towards employing science-culture approaches in designing and implementing the content, process and method/strategies of teaching ecology,

ecosystem and human development concepts. The essay observes that both science and culture can input into the content, process and methodology of environmental education in Social Studies education at teacher training level; but neither of science nor culture can singlehandedly take pre-eminence of this pedagogical process. The essay concludes that it is only when people are exposed to scientific facts DETA

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that have emotion-laden cultural outlook that they could be led to think about environmental problems, and become concerned, and develop tendencies for behaviour change.

Dr Pule Phindane
School of Teacher Education, Faculty of Humanities
Central University of Technology, Free State
Bloemfontein 9300. South Africa
This study aims to examine children and parents’ language preferences in view of the South African Language policy derived from the 1996 Education Act, which requires instruction to be conducted in the mother tongue in grades 1 - 3. This study is thus a survey in which interviews and questionnaires were used to gather data from pupils, parents, school heads, pre-school educators and educators – in charge of Early Childhood Development departments (ECDs). The sample consisted of 100 pupils, 80 parents, 40 school heads, 150 pre-school educators and 30 ECDs. Participants were purposively selected from urban, peripheral-urban, and rural schools in Motheo district, Free State province in South Africa. It was discovered that pupils and parents preferred English as the language of instruction at pre – school level, despite challenges faced in accessing the curriculum through the use of the second language. Hence, it is suggested that there is a need for attitude change and thus a serious campaign for all stakeholders to appreciate the role played by the mother tongue in early years of schooling.

Keywords: Bilingualism, Mother tongue, Preferences and Attitudes


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Yvonne Reed
School of Education
University of the Witwatersrand

Prof. I.O.Salawu
School of Education
National Open University of Nigeria Lagos

Emmanuel Sibomana
School of Education
University of the Witwatersrand and Kigali Institute of Education


While there is ongoing debate about what constitutes a knowledge base for teacher education (e.g. Shulman, 1987; Banks, Leach & Moon, 1999; Munby, Russell & Martin, 2001; Darling-Hammond, 2006; Morrow, 2007; Reed, 2010), there is general agreement that teacher educators who are discipline/subject specialists need to focus not only on their subject but also on ‘subject for teachers’ (e.g. English for teachers’ or ‘Mathematics for teachers’). When such subject specialists are preparing materials for distance learning programmes, they also need to take into account the contexts in which pre-service or in-service teachers live and work as well as their prior knowledge and experience (NADEOSA, in Welch & Reed, 2005). This paper draws on a textual analysis of materials, produced at three sites, for the teaching of English as an additional language (South Africa) and as a foreign language (Rwanda) and interviews with teacher-learners who have used these materials for their studies. We argue that teacher-learners’ ‘investment’ (Norton, 2000) in their studies and in improving their classroom practice is likely to be greater if they find evidence in the materials that the designers understand their professional and personal needs; and that discipline/subject specialists are likely to produce materials of higher quality if they are supported and/or mentored by experts in distance learning materials design.

The place of teacher education in the context of overall development of any nation cannot be down placed. The emergence of distance education with its peculiar characteristics and its usage in offering teacher education programme have provided a unique yet areas of challenges in teacher education. The paper using historical cum descriptive approach takes a cursory look at the various attempts at using distance education to offer teacher education in Nigeria. Attempts were made to concentrate attention on important aspects of teacher education such as pedagogical, teaching practice, curricular as well as administration among others. The challenges that the National Open University is having as well as efforts at resolving them were highlighted with the purpose of providing evidenced based experiences for other Countries to share from.

Keywords: Teacher education, Distance education, Teaching
practice, Teacher effectiveness, Pedagogy, Teaching skills.

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Moffat Chitapa Tarusikirwa, PhD
A/ Dean and Chairperson Teacher Development: Faculty of Arts and Education Zimbabwe Open University
There are a number of advantages for Teacher Development through Open and Distance Education. Some of the advantages include those of flexibility as students are able to study in their own time while at the same time working and going on with their daily lives, large numbers can be developed at the same time as there are no space limitations, ICT such as the internet among others has reduced distance between the tutor and tutee to zero and made reading material abundant. On the other hand, Teacher Development through ODL can be problematic. Some of the disadvantages of Teacher Development through ODL are as follows: Depending with the level of ICT development of a particular country, the mode of delivery can be imbued with a number of challenges, for example where e- learning was the envisaged mode of lesson delivery, access to computers and internet facilities becomes a must for every student. In some lowly developed African countries, access to ICT and internet facilities is a pipe dream for those people in the peripheries of the countries. Furthermore, there are challenges of poor financial support from the fiscus, infrastructure such as electricity, telephone, printing and typing facilities among others making learning material production difficult.

Leadership and management development
for African schooling in the 21st century

This research paper discusses the experiences of academics involved in Teacher Development through ODL in an African country. A qualitative research methodology was used. Furthermore, a purposive sample of 15 academics was used. Semi structured open ended interview technique was used to gather the data and interpretive content analysis was employed for data analysis.

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Keshni Bipath and Bongi Nkabinde
University of Pretoria

Dr. Jepkemboi Ruth Choge
Prof. David K. Serem
Department of Educational Management and Policy Studies
Maasai Mara University

Even athletes need to train before a race in order to win, yet HoDs in South Africa are appointed and left to manage the departments on their own withno mentorship. It is no wonder that SA scores the lowest in literacy and numeracy (PIRLS,TIMMS, ANA results). The aim of this research was to investigate the challenges faced by foundation phase HODs regarding their roles and responsibilities. A quantitative research approach was used to assess the perceptions of 274 foundation phase HoDs in Mpumalanga and the SPSS 20 Statistical package was used to analyze the data. The findings show that HoDs perceive that they are overworked, whereas in reality, the amount of time they spend in school is not as expected in the Personnel Administrative Measures (PAM) document. It emerged that most educators leave school earlier than normal and thus experience a lack of time for supervision and administration, which then becomes a stress factor in the completion of their roles and responsibilities. Twenty two percent of the respondents indicated that they are not familiar with the HoD duties as outlined in the PAM document. Furthermore, the study uncovered issues such as a lack of support and training for HoDs, the role of parents as motivators in terms of learner achievement, and the importance of evaluating and developing teachers to provide quality education in the 21st century.

Prof. Jonah N. Kindiki
Department of Educational Management and Policy Studies
Moi University
The degree of attention given to women leadership in Education in Kenya has increased considerably in the recent years especially after the government introduced the affirmative action for both girls and women in education and employment in support of Millennium Development Goals, World Conventions, the Kenya Vision 2030 blue print for economic development and the Constitution of Kenya, 2010. In spite of all that, women are still underrepresented in leadership. Therefore, this paper presents a study on the Challenges facing women Leadership development in Kenya. The study was guided by Fullans’ theory of educational change combined with Riggs theory of Prismatic Society. The study utilised quantitative and qualitative methodologies and adopted a descriptive survey research design. The study was carried out in selected primary schools in Nandi County. DETA

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Stratified random sampling and purposive proportionate sampling techniques were used to select the participants. District education officers, head teachers and teachers were the target population. The total sample was 364.

be structured to incorporate development of leadership knowledge and skills. Gender mainstreaming in educational organizations’ management should be prioritized so as to enhance capacity building and implementation of Gender Policy in Kenya.

Data was collected using questionnaires, interviews, and documents analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. The study found that good leadership is not specific to gender. The study found out that the respondents attributed female head teachers’ success to their traditionally perceived characteristics, such as caring leadership, multitasking and ability to develop good human relations. The respondents acknowledged that cultural practices and stereotyping may have influenced male Perceptions to women leadership in the past, but argued that good leadership is not specific to gender, but part of the qualities a person possesses, regardless of gender.

Keywords: women, leadership development, challenges

The study concluded that, female Head teachers are effective and equal to their male counterparts and sometimes even more effective because they are caring, well organized, can multitask and are good at communicating and establishing good relationships with others. The challenges facing female teachers in leadership were identified as; lack of promotion since most of them had never been promoted, unequal advancement opportunities, motherhood responsibilities, and career immobility due to geographical immobility due to family responsibilities, lack of role models, dominance of males in the leadership network and lack of self esteem to seek the administrative posts aggressively. The study recommended that there is need to stop cultural practices hindering women from progressing into leadership. Women should challenge the traditional beliefs by negotiating domestic responsibilities, have self confidence and seek mentorship, training and coaching from other leaders. Finally the study recommended that teacher education and training should DETA

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Chimaobi Israel. C Ezema
Department of Architecture,
University of Nigeria Nsukka,
Enugu State, Nigeria

Emmanuel Kofi Gyimah1, Mark Owusu Amponsah 2,
Department of Educational Foundations, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast
Department of Educational Foundations, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast



The 21st century is increasingly diverse, complex, and globalized and the mass media has permeated various societies. It is also associated with new problems and new possibilities. In view of the complex and challenging society, it is therefore necessary to address ways of improving the leadership and managerial skills in African schools in the 21st century. Good leadership and effective management development is what we need in order to advance

the educational sector of the tertiary institutions. Tertiary institutions need to be effective, directional, vision driven, efficient, hierarchy, co-ordinated which should be in proportion to base on the circumstances surrounding the environment.

Early childhood development has been given serious attention in recent times. It is generally believed that a child’s success in grappling effectively with emotional and social challenges in later years largely depends on his early childhood experiences. Using a case study design, the study explored the experiences of a Primary School in Ghana. Data was collected using questionnaire, interview and observation procedures. Sixty (60) teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The study found among others that the ability of a child to cope with emotional and social challenges in later years depends on the teacher’s attitude in terms of his commitment, sensitivity to child’s needs and ability to structure the teaching learning environment. Based on the findings, the study recommended that in making placement decisions in the Primary Schools, educational departments should give priority to teachers who are highly committed to early childhood development.

Our activities are mostly influenced by our external environment and every organization has a particular work environment, which dictates to a considerable degree how its leaders respond to problems and opportunities. This is brought about by its heritage of past leaders and its present leaders. The current climate of educational institution requires a less hierarchal and more consensual approach for advancement.

Keywords: early childhood, Primary
psychosocial, development, teacher


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and Oguz, 2012). This paper examines respect in terms of teacherprincipal relations with regard to transport matters and how lateness impacts on the relationship between the principal and teachers.

Dr Vimbi Mahlangu
Department of Educational Management and Policy Studies
University of Pretoria

Participants in this study define respect in different ways. A teacher refers to respect as responsibility and professional behaviour. Principals regard punctuality to school and to class as a sign of taskbased respect. In this regard, teachers are expected to respect the law (Gungor,, 2012). In those researched schools, it was found that late coming of teachers led principals to resort to autocratic leadership style. The study found that in reality the principal is a democrat, but the frustrations and helplessness dictates otherwise.

Dr Mokgadi Mohlakwana
Department of Educational Management and Policy Studies,
University of Pretoria
This study examines the link between the distance traveled by teachers to school and discipline. Some teachers travel long distances to school and use public transport. Teachers and principals were interviewed at their schools. It was found that teacher’s explanation of respect is premised on the understanding that it has to do with responsible and appropriate behaviour. Those urban teachers working in rural areas are said to be mostly disrespectful. They arrive late to school and it angers their principals. Kant’s Moral Theory evaluates the rightness and wrongness of an action by looking into the consequences created by the actions. This theory is also called “respect for person’s” theory. This paper uses qualitative approach in gathering data. The lens focuses on respect as an essential element in any relationship as well as how matters of distance traveling to schools affect this kind of relationship.

Respect is a difficult concept to explain. It is highly contextual and requires that understanding be made with issues of culture. Respect also includes race, gender and age (Gungor, Aydin, Memduhoglu

Schools in rural areas are not accessible in terms of transport, roads are not passable. It is an added expense to come and teach in a rural school due to lack of travel allowance from government. Such challenges are resolved by the use of public transport like buses. It results in teachers having to leave home in the early hours of the morning, thus experiencing late arrivals at their work places. Often, this creates tension between them and their school principals. Most African teachers do not prefer to teach in rural schools (Mulkeen, 2005). This leaves rural schools with teachers who are less experienced than is expected. It often takes long to fill empty posts in rural areas.

Rural teachers experience a lot of challenges related to transport. Some roads are inaccessible due to their poor conditions. It leaves school authorities, sometimes called school inspectors, with a challenge of monitoring rural schools. There is also a link between inaccessibility of schools and the quality of teaching by some teachers. Rural teachers find it difficult to attend in-service training and this exacerbates the problem of quality education in rural schools (Mulkeen, 2005). DETA

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Masilonyana Motseke
Central University of South Africa, Welkom Campus
+27 57 910 3530
+27 72 151 6178
+27 86 7511885(f)
Prior to 1994, corporal punishment was mainly used to deal with poor behaviour among learners in South African schools. The
administration of corporal punishment included the use of canes, belts, rulers, dusters and shoes on learners. Apart from hitting learners, corporal punishment also involved bodily inconveniences such as denial of meals, denial of the use of toilet, standing in an awkward position and manual labour. The advent of democracy IN 1994, and the subsequent introduction of the Constitution led to the banning of corporal punishment in South African schools. The democratic government viewed corporal punishment as unconstitutional, barbaric and inhumane; and it was completely banned through the introduction of the South African Schools Act of 1996. Therefore, the administration of corporal punishment became illegal, and punishable by law in all schools in South Africa. Consequently, many teachers have been charged for administering corporal punishment on learners. Despite the charges, teachers continue to administer corporal punishment on learners. Why are teachers prepared to risk being charged for administering corporal punishment on learners?

township school teachers, which the majority received during the apartheid era, emphasised the administration of corporal punishment. Therefore, township school teachers believe that corporal punishment remains the most effective measure of dealing with poor behaviour among learners. Secondly, in many African homes the use of corporal punishment is common. Therefore, corporal punishment is viewed as natural, and other measures of disciplining learners are, thus, viewed as foreign to the African people and their cultural practices. Thirdly, the levels of aggression and violence experienced by learners in their homes and in the townships are very high. Thus learners view hitting others as a more effective measure of addressing issues than the softer alternatives. Fourthly, many African parents, due to their low levels of education and economic status, play little or no role in the schooling of their children. Therefore, teachers cannot rely on parents to monitor learner behaviour at home – a practice crucial for a number of alternative measures of disciplining learners.

In this paper I highlight the reasons which make the use of corporal punishment compelling for township school teachers. I also argue that the banning of corporal punishment in, especially the township schools, was too sudden, and did not allow a gradual transition by teachers, learners and parents. I recommend that the banning of corporal punishment be reviewed, instead measures be put in place to manage the administration of corporal punishment, and to avoid using it as a tool for harm and assault on learners. This could be the case until the transformation of society, as envisaged by the constitution, is realised.

Keywords: corporal punishment, township schools, poor learner behaviour

There are a number of reasons responsible for the continuation of corporal punishment in schools. Firstly, the professional training of DETA

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Mweru Mwingi
Aga Khan University-IED, EA
(+255) (0) 22 2152293/2150051

Dr. Anne Wairimu Ndiritu
University of Nairobi



Literature reports that the vast majority of school leaders in East Africa commence their new job with minimal or no leadership preparation. The dearth of effective school leadership is characteristic in poor classroom instruction, low literacy levels, student truancy and teacher indiscipline. Learning to lead on the job does not fully equip school leaders for the tough demands of the job yet for many school leaders, the school is the leadership preparation ground. This paper argues that learning to lead on the job can be organised rather than ad hoc learning. It shows how school practicum can develop leadership knowledge, skills and dispositions through hands-on experiential learning.

Leadership is an area that many would not want to take for granted because of established correlations between success or failure of any organization and its leadership. Scholars have tried to establish the kind of leadership behaviour that would enhance efficiency in organizations. One kind of leadership behaviour that has been a topic of debate among scholars for the past decade is transformational leadership. This study endeavoured to establish the effect of transformational leadership on academic performance in selected secondary schools in Kenya. The participants were administered Kouzes and Posner’s leadership Practices Inventory which identified the principal leadership practices in each of the five dimensions of “challenging the process”, “inspiring a shared vision”, “enabling others to act”, “modeling the way” and “encouraging the heart”. The sample consisted of 387 participants from 49 secondary schools in Kenya. Leadership behaviour was measured using the Leadership Practices Inventory-(“Self” and “others”). Co relational research design was employed in data analysis. Pearson correlations were used to establish if there was a relationship between transformational leadership practices and academic performance. Pearson correlation indicated statistical significance between total LPI scores and students’ academic performance. A further analysis of the leadership domains showed there was a positive correlation between three transformational characteristics (Inspiring a Shared Vision, Challenging the process

Using document analysis, informal conversations and an openended questionnaire this paper demonstrates that school practicum provides a contextually relevant and challenge rich environment for the development school leadership and management skills. The paper further explores how engagement with complex gender related issues developed advocacy, instruction, teamwork, project management and ICT skills.


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and Encouraging the Heart) and Students’ academic performance. There was however a weak but not statistically significant correlation between transformational leadership in two characteristics (Modeling the way and Enabling Others to Act) and students’ academic performance. The principals whose schools obtained the minimum university entry mark (Above C+) scored higher in LPI scores than the principals whose schools obtained less than the university entry marks (Below C+). It was recommended that all learners undertaking their teacher training should be trained on transformational leadership since they are the ones that take over leadership roles in their career as teachers. All practicing school principals should learn and practice transformational leadership for effective learning and teaching in their schools.

Emile Rudasingwa
VVOB School Leadership and School Management Program
+ 250 788 30 17 54
Many developing countries, face the challenge and pressing duty to eradicate poverty, enhancing equity and expanding access to education without compromising the quality of learning. Researchers commonly stated that “the teacher is the main instrument for bringing about desired learning improvements and that proper teacher education structures, teacher management and development frameworks are key factors that determine teacher performance”. None can question that:” the quality and utility value of education depends on the quality and competence of the teaching staff”. As we all know successful school head teachers are those who among other things (a) reshape the conditions for teaching and learning; (b) enhance teacher quality and (d) enhance the quality of teaching and learning.

Thou countries have made tremendous achievement in teacher
supply; the rapid expansion especially in primary education
overstretched capacity to meet demand for qualified and competent teachers. Additional to this situation of limited numbers of competent teachers, Institutions charged of pre-service teacher training have not yet managed to graduates students- teachers adequately prepared for a teaching career. Furthermore; very little is done to provide young teachers with school- based support so that they confidently enter the teaching career, stay and enjoy teaching.


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The ever increasing pressure to raise standards of achievement constantly pose the challenge to the teacher demand and supply situation. This means that the role of the head teacher as a leader is becoming ever more crucial. As the dictum goes – “A school is the head and the head is the school”, This means that targeting HTs for training and motivation is by extension aiming to make a difference in the whole schooling including teacher development and management. Generally, this paper is targeting to discuss the role of school leadership and school management in the provision of high motivated and competent teachers for Africa equipped enough to cope with increasing pressure to raise standards of achievement.

Specifically; this paper will discuss about the following specific questions:
- What has school leadership, management and administration got to do with learning outcomes?

Poster presentations

- What has school leadership, management and administration got to do with teacher’s motivation and self development?
- What kind of school based support and practices are available to make teachers bring about desired learning improvements?
- This paper will raise a debate whether or not targeting head teachers for capacity development is by extension making
differences in teachers’ performance.
- Features for a suitable leadership and management that put students’ learning and teacher development at the core of
leadership underpinned by equity and social justice will be
adopted/ adapted for African schooling in the 21st century.
There and then a list of best practices will be drawn for
harmonization and benchmarking.

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In secondary schools in Tanzania, teachers are faced with many complexities regarding linguistic competence in the LOI. First, their own confidence in using English to communicate and teach the specific subjects and, second, students’ abilities to understand everything the teacher is saying (Qorro, 2009). However, teachers use strategies, usually code switching, in order to try to get their message across (Brock-Utne, 2012). Another issue faced by teachers is the view that it is better to study in English; a view supported by parents, students and government officials (Brock-Utne).

Jean Antunes
Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development East Africa
+255 754 235 705
This study aims at exploring teachers’ responses to issues related to the teaching and learning processes in bilingual school settings in Tanzania and Brazil. Looking from the standpoint of south-south cooperation, this comparative education research has much to offer both countries through the sharing of knowledge, experiences, and strengths. In Tanzanian public primary schools Kiswahili is largely used as the language of instruction (LOI), and English is officially the medium of instruction in secondary schools. However, research has shown that in practice, the language of instruction in secondary schools involves code-switching between English and Kiswahili (Brock-Utne, 2012). Brock-Utne also found that students learned much better when they were allowed to use Kiswahili than when forced to study through English.

Differently, Brazil is largely assumed to be a monolingual Portuguese country. Cavalcanti (1999) challenges this myth that serves to erase indigenous peoples, immigrant communities, and the majority of Brazilians that speak underprivileged varieties of Portuguese. Cavalcanti further asserts that minority contexts cannot be ignored since indigenous communities are found throughout the nation, especially in the Northern and Midwest Regions.

Indigenous communities in Brazil have secured their right to bilingual education in the Constitution of 1988, however; only in 1998 was the National Curricular Reference for Indigenous Schools (Referencial Curricular Nacional para Escolas Indigenas) published. Due to the increasing representation of indigenous peoples in educational leadership, in 2012 the National Curricular Directives for Indigenous School Education secured that bilingualism and multilingualism are founding elements of the educational projects in these communities, thus valuing indigenous languages and knowledge. Notwithstanding, in school settings in Brazil, teachers face issues of power relations between Portuguese and indigenous languages. Also, there are issues of linguistic representations, in which students are likely to find it easier to learn concepts in one language but will have difficulties in transferring it to the other language (Amaral, 2011).

How teachers deal with the complexities of their respective contexts is the focus of this study. It is anticipated that a comparison between teachers’ responses to issues of teaching and learning in bilingual school settings in Tanzania and Brazil will lead to greater understanding of the teaching and learning process within both countries. As well, suggestions will be made as to what type of awareness and strategies teachers more generally in other bilingual contexts could consider.


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on establishing the required standards and quality in this programme for meaningful development in africa; how to manage this paradoxical situation in the Teacher education programme for the benefit of the african continent and then examine the anticipated future of this programme in continental development in comparison to other region in the world.

Patrick Kafu
University of Eldoret
+254 721895809, 733317911

Keywords: Paradox, Teacher education, confusion, crisis,
standards and quality

Teacher education programme is an essential education programme in a society. Normally, it is the foundation of development in any society. Conventionally, this programme is mandated to prepare and produce school teachers who are a critical force in the process of development in the society. However, new developments in both education sector in particular and the society in general in africa have created a new scenario in management of Teacher education programme.

Some of the emerging issues that are posing challenges to this programme include the concept, the need for, status, development and administration, facilitation of and the state of Teacher education programme in africa. In other words, there are questions of relevancy of the programme to national development, the quality of Teacher education programme, the responsibility of managing this programme and how this management should best be done. These developments seem to create confusion and/or crisis in establishing the desired standards and quality in Teacher education programme. The ensuing situation is likely to negatively influence the over-all development in africa and, by extension, the relations hip between the african continent and the rest of the world. This has created a paradox in development and administration of Teacher education programme in this continent. Therefore, this paper is designed and focuses on emerging paradox in development and administration of Teacher education programme in africa; the effect of the developing paradox


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By Patrick Mavuto Kapito
With the adoption of the Education for All agenda, education sectors of most developing countries have been overwhelmed by the enrolment figures at the primary school level. Chief amongst a plethora of challenges is maintaining a teacher-pupil ratio that facilitates effective teaching and learning practices. Since most of the developing countries in the SADC region have a low capacity to train enough primary school teachers using the regular face to face mode, an Open Distance Learning (ODL) mode has been adopted in a number of countries. The drive towards the production of adequate numbers of teachers is aimed at providing quality education to the learners. However, despite the positive strides, as regards to the noticeable increase in the number of teachers due to the ODL mode, quality of learning is still low and in some cases even dwindling.

The poor literacy levels have been attributed to a number of factors ranging from lack of reading materials to teaching and learning practices. Among the factors that have been attributed to the poor literacy levels in Malawian learners, the ODL teacher training mode has been cited as one of the major contributing factors. To address the problems associated with the nature and products of ODL teacher training, various players in the education sector have embarked on programs meant to mitigate the shortcomings associated with the products of the ODL training mode. Employing a case study approach, this paper uses the ‘five key dimensions of collaboration’ as a conceptual framework to analyse the nature and extent of collaboration among the stakeholders and assess its effect in the quest to improve the quality of literacy instruction by teachers trained through ODL teacher training mode in Malawi.

This situation is more pronounced in the literacy/reading area of learning. The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ II: 2005) report on a survey to assess reading levels of grade 6 learners in the SADC region found that the literacy levels in the SADC region are alarmingly low. The situation is worse for Malawi as the country is ranked the poorest amongst those who participated in the survey. The situation looks grim for the SADC region in general and Malawi in particular when one considers that most of the skills that the grade 6 learners lacked are expected to be attained by the learners by the time they complete Grade 4.


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findings of a critical investigation of the current monitoring and evaluation techniques used to gather and analyse data and make recommendations on an effective strategic and systematic model for ensuring quality, and the implementation and improvement and adaptation of the quality assurance instrument.

Motlalepule Ruth Mampane and Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu,
University of Pretoria
012-4202339 / 012-4205624
012-4205511 / 012-4203581(f)

Ensuring quality is vital in ensuring that expected levels and outcomes of teaching and learning are achieved and maintained in Distance Education and ODL. The purpose of this paper is to report on the current internal Quality Assurance instrument used in the Distance Education ACE: Special Needs Education (SNE) program, Management and Policy Studies program and the B.Ed

(honours) programs in the Unit for distance Education, Faculty of Education, University of Pretoria. Distance Education program of the university uses similar Quality Assurance instruments for the entire ACE and honours (?) programs in the Unit for distance learning in the faculty of education. The goal of ensuring quality is to measure the effectiveness of the program, to ensure that quality is maintained and learning outcomes are achieved. Quality Assurance is achieved through written feedback and assessment by students, lecturers and program coordinators using specifically designed instruments after every teaching and learning activity.

This paper will critically evaluate different components of Quality Assurance instrument, namely, the aspects pertaining to learning material, facilitators, coordinators/managers of each module, administration and logistics. Ultimately, we will report on the DETA

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Caroline Ndirangu
Department of Educational Administration and Planning,
University of Nairobi, Kenya. 2013
Out of 69 million children that are deprived of their right to education globally, 54% are girls. This paper seeks to elucidate the female teachers’ protective role of refugee girls in Dadaab Refugee camps and Kakuma in Kenya. According to UNHCR education strategy

contrary to expectation, schools are not always safe places for children and more so for the refugee girls. The protective factors in refugee secondary schools include adequate teacher student ratio, elimination of humiliation, bulling and corporal punishment and safe guards against sexual abuse and exploitation of the girls. The presence of female teachers can play a role in creating a secure environment for the girls. The percentage of female refugee teachers in Kenya is a mere 14 percent yet she hosts the largest number of refugees in world. Further, the girl child secondary school participation in Dadaab and Kakuma camp is 21% and 19% respectively. So far, there is no data available on the effectiveness of higher proportion of female teachers in protecting the girl child. There is also unproven assumption that the number of female refugee teachers can play a role in protecting refugee children. Currently, measures of girl child protection capture service delivery and not the outcomes of education. This small scale qualitative study seeks to understand the outcomes of having female teachers’ and their impact on the quality of girl child education. Drawing upon interviews with teachers, refugee girls, practitioners, observations in secondary schools in Dadaab and Kakuma camps

and data from refugee service providers the finding are primarily descriptive in nature.
The paper contends that although the female teachers play a
fundamental protective role for the girl-child in refugee schools there is need to explore the possibility of reaching out to the male teachers’ to extend the same protection to the girl child by improving their pedagogy. Pedagogy that is gender sensitive will encourage the refugee girls to complete their secondary education and even aim higher to attain careers that can change their lifestyle. In the meantime, there is urgent need to promote recruitment, training and improve incentives of the female teachers to foster a protective learning environment for the refugee girls in the secondary schools in both camps.


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of new skills, attitudes and change of mindset of the key managers on carrying out their business in a result and outcome oriented manner without removing them from their jobs or work places. It discusses the basic characteristics of open and distance learning that enable them to provide education where learners and educators are separated in space and time but mediated by use of a variety of media.

Jeckoniah Ogeda Odumbe
Centre for Open and Distance Learning
University of Nairobi
+254 720 714 346

It explains the concept of Flagship projects justification, and their relevance to the vision 2030.
The academic programmes mounted and offered under this initiative from 2011/2012 performance contract periods were:

Dr Wafula Charles Misiko
Centre for Open and Distance Learning
University of Nairobi
+254 720 346

Master of Arts in Project Planning and Management which provides capacity for result oriented management,
Master of Distance Education which is intended to provide high level managers and implementers of open and distance programmes.
The second set of programmes being mounted this year under this initiative in 2012/2013 are as follows:

This paper is a documentary presentation and discussion of the utilization of open and distance learning to address educational challenges that face Kenya towards its Fulfillment of Vision 2030 which has been set as Economic developments’ blue print to transform Kenya into a newly industrializing middle income state providing high quality life to all its citizens by 2030’

The data and information used in this paper was obtained through documentary analysis, observation and interviews.
The paper identifies the magnitude of required capacity to undertake the training and -in-servicing of the working Kenyans for the provision

Master of Education Administration and Planning to develop capacity to manage educational systems efficiently and effectively with a view to achieving the country’s endeavours of Vision 2030 and

Master of Educational Foundations to train professional educators and thinkers in educational foundations of the past for understanding the present and planning a better education for the future.. The mounting involved development of the instructional materials in print and e-learning and building capacity in the tutors for face to face and on-line tutoring and support to the learners.


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The paper discusses in detail the specific roles of each of the Flagship programmes in contributing to the fulfillment of the Vision 2030.


The paper further discusses the collaborative arrangements and modalities of implementing these projects in line with Vision 2030 guidelines and objectives. It also discusses the detailed operations involved in the realization of these projects through the collaboration of the Centre for Open and Distance Learning, Centre of e-Learning, School of Education and the School of Continuing and Distance Education in providing the learning materials and tutorials services required.

Brown Bully Onguko
Aga Khan University, Institute for Educational Development,
East Africa
+255 22 2152293

The paper further discusses the outcomes, challenges of
implementation and the monitoring and evaluation of the project to ascertain the tangible outcome from the graduates of the programmes. The concludes with a recommendation that open and distance
learning which provides education to people anywhere and anytime and at the learners convenience is the way to go as a strategy for building capacity in the working people for the fulfillment of the Vision 2030.

Abstract: This poster presentation will share slides of artifacts and narratives of a tested home-grown teachers’ professional development approach through blended learning. The research was implemented in rural western Kenya with teachers studying through self-directed study on tablet computers, combined with face-to-face meetings on weekends. The use of solar energy to operate the tablets provided one way in which teachers with no access to electricity can experience technology mediated professional development. This research

was implemented through design-based research (DBR) with the researcher working with two local teachers as experts to design locally relevant content. Open educational resources from Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (TESSA) and global web resources such as YouTube videos were important sources of content. The artifacts to be shared in the poster formed part of the data together with interviews and observation of face-to-face meetings and teachers’ classroom practice. Teachers who participated in the research implemented cooperative learning and activity-based learning strategies, thus, allowing their learners to engage in “doing” and “talking” unlike the previous practice where learners mainly engaged in listening. The two teachers involved as local experts have designed more blended learning programmes with other teachers in challenging contexts as a way of sustaining the design approach used in the research.


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a new and more effective assessment model is proposed for both experienced and inexperienced PE teachers in the FET-phase. Such a model enhances the status of PE as a subject in the North-West province and will contribute to the uniformity of assessment amongst PE teachers. A proposed model for assessing PE will elucidate developmental and implementation practices in South African rural schools, particularly when faced with assessment challenges.

Marlene Riekert
North-West University
Faculty of Education Sciences
Potchefstroom Campus
(018) 299-4599
Physical Education (PE) teachers, especially unqualified and underqualified teachers in the North-West Province of South Africa find it difficult to use the current assessment rubrics with which to assess learners’ performance of specific movement skills.

The current study investigates one way of addressing this problem, namely to develop a more comprehensive and effective assessment instrument to assess physical fitness, motor and sport skills for PE. This has been achieved by an in-depth assessment of the specific needs of teachers with regard to an assessment model for PE, particularly, focussing on the needs of experienced and inexperienced teachers in PE in rural schools in the North-West province.

The assessment model should fit into the recommended framework of the National Curriculum and should work effectively for both teachers and learners. This presentation incorporates quantitative and supported qualitative data to the extent of a pragmatic approach in developing an assessment model for PE teachers in the NorthWest province. The findings indicate that unqualified and underqualified PE teachers experience a need for resources and clarity in assessment and suggest an alternative model based on descriptive rubrics supported by illustrations, images and DVD’s. As a result


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Moffat Chitapa Tarusikirwa
A/ Dean and Chairperson Teacher Development: Faculty of Arts and Education Zimbabwe Open University

Dr Wendy N. Setlalentoa
School of Teacher Education,
Faculty of Humanities
Central University of Technology, Free State
Private Bag X20539, Bloemfontein 9300.
South Africa


Teaching a Grade R class to comprehend Mathematical concepts though perceived to be easy by others can be daunting to educators. This requires employment of effective teaching strategies as well as a hands-on approach to teaching since this will assist with memory retention and also to keep learners interested in the lesson. A grade R class of a rural public school comprising 38 learners and their educator was used in this ethnographic study through focus group discussions and observations. The aim was to see how educators encourage learners to problem solve and use reasoning to understand quantities and how counting works rather than simply providing them with counting procedures The use of manipulatives, that is,  items used as concrete representatives of a concept, worked very well in assisting learners to comprehend the concept of counting. Also, knowledge of number processing by learners can help an educator with the early identification of at-risk learners. This information can guide appropriate educational interventions at school and teacher training levels.

Keywords: Grade R class, classroom conversations, scaffolding, Numeracy

In Southern Rhodesia, Standards 3, 4, 5 and 6 would teach during the school term and attend Teacher Training during the holidays. This was mostly carried out in Missionary institutions. Later, they changed into full-time Teacher Training institutions for two (2) years. Students would spend time in college and in the field. In some instances, teachers were certified because of good performance without

attending colleges. Some of the models used for teacher training in the past to the present are as follows:
One model involved three years of Teacher Training in which students spent the 1st year in College, the 2nd year in schools away from college and the 3rd and final year back in college. This was called the 3-33 model of Teacher training. Another model involved four years of Teacher Training and dubbed the 3-3-3-3 model of Teacher Training and was used by Conventional Colleges. Soon after independence there was the introduction of the famous ZINTEC model of Teacher Development which was four years long. Currently in Zimbabwe, Conventional Colleges are using a three year Teacher Development model called the 2-5-2 model. Additionally, from a purely ODL point of view, The Zimbabwe Open University model of Teacher Development came into being. ZOU comes in as a critical player in teacher


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DETA conference abstracts 2013

development and has the capacity to develop teachers through ODL which is the current model used in conventional colleges. This paper focuses on the Zimbabwe Open University’s ODL model of teacher development.


Page 107

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