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For years scientist working in this field have attempted to classify types of schizophrenia. According to the DSM-III there were five different types (disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, residual, and undifferentiated) however, the first three were originally proposed by Kraepelin. Currently today, these classifications are still being used in the DSM-V, however predicting the outcomes of the disorder are not reliably alone in the diagnostic process. This resulted in the use of other systems to assist in classifying the types of disorders, which are based on the preponderance of “positive” vs ‘negative” symptoms. Researchers hope that the differentiating types of schizophrenia based on clinical symptoms will help to determine different etiologies or causes of the disorder (Schizophrenia.com, 1996-2010). According to (NIMH 2009) schizophrenia affect about 1% of the world population. In the United States one in a hundred people about 2.5 million, have this disease. In this paper we will discuss the history of Schizophrenia. Also discussed will include the diagnostic criteria, treatment and what current and future research of Schizophrenia will entail.
History of Schizophrenia-V. Rowles
Schizophrenia was introduced as the term use to describe people who have difficulty distinguishing real events from dreams and hallucinations. It was first meant to express the idea of split or multiple personality however over time the definition of schizophrenia continues to change. Its origin for this illness was first referred to as dementia praecox, and then later changed to schizophrenia. The term dementia praecox was used, it refers to a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, which normally begins during the late teens or early adulthood stage (Berrios & Porter, 1995). Dementia praecox (a "premature dementia" or "precocious madness") was first used in this Latin form in 1891 by Arnold Pick a psychiatry professor at Charles University in Prague Germany (Berrios & Porter, 1995). He used the term dementia praecox to describe a person suffering with a psychotic disorder which resembled hebephrenia also known as Disorganized Schizophrenia. Dementia Praecox or Schizophrenia can be traced back to the Ebers Papyrus (Egyptian medical papyrus) 1550 BC and was named after German Egyptologist Georg M. Ebers. The medical papyrus is among the oldest and most important medical papyri of ancient Egypt, and is presently on display at the library of the University of Leipzig in Germany (The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary, 2014). Schizophrenia was a term coined by Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler in 1910 which was derived from the Greek word ‘schizo’ meaning split and ‘phren’ meaning mind. Paul Bleuler and Emil Kraepelin eminent German Psychiatrist disagreed in reference to their theories of the illness so in efforts to clarify the matter, Bleuler changed the name of the illness to ‘schizophrenia’. Bleuler felt the term dementia praecox was very misleading therefore he fingered schizophrenia would be better defined as the dissociation or loosening of thoughts and feelings, he found prominent features of the illness. Kraepelin believed the illness only occurred in young people and that it led to mental deterioration. Bleuler believed schizophrenia led to a keen consciousness of memories and experiences. Although Paul Bleuler coined the term Schizophrenia it was Emil Kraepelin who was the first to isolate the word from other forms of psychosis (mental illness, mental retardation, or physical deformities) in 1887. In 1896, Kraepelin published a revision to his very influential psychiatry textbook introducing schizophrenia. He was also the first to offer an objective descriptions and diagnostic criteria for dementia praecox. He adopted this term to describe...
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