Schizophrenia

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Abstract
For years scientist working in this field have attempted to classify types of schizophrenia. According to the DSM-III there were five different types (disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, residual, and undifferentiated) however, the first three were originally proposed by Kraepelin. Currently today, these classifications are still being used in the DSM-V, however predicting the outcomes of the disorder are not reliably alone in the diagnostic process. This resulted in the use of other systems to assist in classifying the types of disorders, which are based on the preponderance of “positive” vs ‘negative” symptoms. Researchers hope that the differentiating types of schizophrenia based on clinical symptoms will help to determine different etiologies or causes of the disorder (Schizophrenia.com, 1996-2010).
According to (NIMH 2009) schizophrenia affect about 1% of the world population. In the United States one in a hundred people about 2.5 million, have this disease. In this paper we will discuss the history of Schizophrenia. Also discussed will include the diagnostic criteria, treatment and what current and future research of Schizophrenia will entail.

History of Schizophrenia-V. Rowles
Schizophrenia was introduced as the term use to describe people who have difficulty distinguishing real events from dreams and hallucinations. It was first meant to express the idea of split or multiple personality however over time the definition of schizophrenia continues to change. Its origin for this illness was first referred to as dementia praecox, and then later changed to schizophrenia. The term dementia praecox was used, it refers to a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, which normally begins during the late teens or early adulthood stage (Berrios & Porter, 1995).
Dementia praecox (a "premature



References: Association, A. P. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th. Edition. American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). Association, A. P. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. Dixon, L. B., Lehman, A. F., & Levine, J. (1995). Conventional Antipsychotic Medications for Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21(4). Fisher, V. (1944). The treatment of an early case of Schizophrenia by the psychic shock method. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 278-289. Engstrom, E. (2004). Clinical Psychiatry In Imperial Germany. Informally published manuscript, Fung, K., Tsang, H., & Corrigan, P. (2008). Self-stigma of People with Schizophrenia as Predictor of their Adherence to Treatment. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 32(2), 95-104. Hasson-Ohayon, I. (2012). Integrating cognitive behavioral based therapy with an intersubjective approach: Addressing metacognitive defects among people with Schizophrenia. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 22(4), 356-374. Heckers, S. (2008). Making progress in schizophrenia research. Schizophrenia Bulentin, 34(4), 591-594 Hoff, P. (1995). Clinical section- Part I. A History of Clinical Psychiatry Kraepelin, E Mojtabai, R., Lavelle, J., & Gibson, J. (2003). Atypical Antipsychotics in First Admission Schizophrenia: Medication Continuation and Outcomes. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29(3), 519-530. Nevid, J. S., Rathus, S. A., & Greene, B. (2011). Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Behavior. In J. S. Nevid, S. A. Rathus, & B. Greene, Abnormal Psychology in A Changing World (p. 10). New Jersery: Prentice Hall. Nevid, J. S., Rathus, S. A., & Greene, B. (2014). Abnormal Psychology in a changing World. New Jersey: Pearson. Raskin, S., Maye, J., Rogers, A., Correll, D., Zamroziewicz, M., & Kurtz, M. (2013). Prospective Memory in Schizophrenia: Relationship to Medication Management Skills, Neurocognition, and Symptoms in Individuals with Schizophrenia. Neuropsychology. Rosenfarb, I. (2011). The therapeutic alliance and family psychoeducation in the treatment of Schizophrenia: an exploratory prospective change process study. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 85-91. Schizophrenia.com. (1996-2010, april 17). Schizophrenia.com. Retrieved from The Internet Mental Health Initiative,: http://www.schizophrenia.com/history.htm Shean, G The American Heritage® Stedman 's Medical Dictionary. (2014, April 15). medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Ebers+papyrus. Retrieved from The Free Dictionary: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Ebers+papyrus

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