Sch4U Final Exam Study Note
Organic Chemistry • Study of compounds to which carbon is the principal element. • Carbon is special because it has 4 bonds.
Functional Groups • Organic substances are organized into organic families. • Organic Families – group of organic compounds with common structural features. o Each family has a recognizable physical property and a specific structural arrangement. o Each combination is referred to as a functional group. o Even though many functional groups exist, they essentially consist of only 3 main components. ▪ Carbon- carbon multiple bonds ▪ Single bonds between a carbon atom and a more electronegative atom. ▪ Carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom
Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms. • There are 3 types of aliphatic hydrocarbons: o Alkanes ▪ A hydrocarbon with only single bonds between carbon atoms. ▪ General formula is Cn H2n+2 ▪ All alkanes have the ending –“ane” ▪ Any alkyl branches in the carbon chain have the suffix –“yl” ▪ The name of a branched alkane must indicate the point of attachment of the branch. o Alkenes ▪ A hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon – carbon double bond. ▪ General formula is Cn H2n o Alkynes ▪ A hydrocarbon that contains at least one carbon – carbon triple bond. ▪ General formula is Cn H2n-2 ▪ In all of these hydrocarbons, the carbon – carbon backbone may form a straight chain, a branched chain or a cyclic structure. ▪ A hydrocarbon branch that is attached to the main structure of the molecule is called an alkyl group. ▪ When methane is attached to the main chain of a molecules it is called a methyl group, -CH3 • Prefix of naming hydrocarbons are: o Meth – 1 carbon o Eth – 2 carbon o But – 3 carbon o Pent – 4 carbon o Prop – 5 carbon o Hex – 6 carbon