Satellites

Topics: Satellite, Geosynchronous orbit, Spacecraft propulsion Pages: 12 (1895 words) Published: October 15, 2013
Satellite

A satellite is defined as any object that orbits any other object. Satellites can be celestial, such as a moon orbiting a planet in the solar system, or a planet in the solar system orbiting the sun. Satellites can also be man-made. Man-made satellites are typically launched into outer space from earth to collect data, photos and other information about Earth and all the many things that exist around it.

FLOW OF CONTENTS

Page no.

1.Introduction 1 - 3 2.Types of satellite 4 -5 3.How are satellite launched 6

a.Polar satellite launching 6 - 10
b.Geostationary satellite launching 10 - 13

4.Orbit 14 5.How a satellite stay in the orbit 15
6.How satellite works 16 7.Merits and De-merits 17 8.Conclusion 18

INTRODUCTION
SATELLITES
A satellite is defined as any object that orbits any other object. Satellites can be celestial, such as a moon orbiting a planet in the solar system, or a planet in the solar system orbiting the sun. Satellites can also be man-made. Man-made satellites are typically launched into outer space from earth to collect data, photos and other information about Earth and all the many things that exist around it.

An animation depicting the orbits of GPS satellites in medium earth orbit.
A full size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavor. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon. The first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched by the Soviet Union in 1957. Since then, thousands of satellites have been launched into orbit around the Earth. These originate from more than 50 countries and have used the satellite launching capabilities of ten nations. A few space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Satellites are used for a large number of purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and research satellites. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit. Satellites are usually semi-independent computer-controlled systems. Satellite subsystems attend many tasks, such as power generation, thermal control, telemetry, attitude control and orbit control. HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL SATELLITES

Sputnik 1: The first artificial satellite
The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957, and initiating the Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer. This in turn triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union and the United States. Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmospheric layers through measurement of its orbital change and provided data on radio-signal distribution in the ionosphere. The unanticipated announcement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so-called Space Race within the Cold War. Sputnik 2 was launched on November 3, 1957 and carried the first living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika.

TYPES OF SATELLITE

Communication...
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