SAT grammar

Topics: Holger Ernst Pages: 8 (1053 words) Published: January 14, 2015
SAT语法考点救命版

主要考点
平行结构
总原则:平行连接词:and、or、but前后要平行,也就是说“词要平行词、词组平行词组、从句平行从句、句子平行句子”。也就是说,看到了and,要考虑and后面的成份是否能和前面某个成份平行。

举几个栗子:
apple and orange
working endlessly and drinking relentlessly
that you decided to leave and that you would work in a new company Mary ran into a stranger but she pretended not to see him.

注意:名词不跟动名词平行:books and drinking water 词不跟词组平行:books and the people

还有哪些连接词呢?
Both A and B
A instead of B
A rather than B
Not only A but also B
Prefer A to B
A not B
A nor B
Either A or B
Neither A nor B
A as well as B
等等
优势句子:some people choose to stay home, and some to party.

代词
总原则:指代要明确,尽量少用代词,看到代词要质疑。

举个栗子:Mary told her mom that she was pregnant. 这句话的she指代不明确。 It、this、that一般不放句末,不能指代句子和动词 举个栗子:This city is on fire and the whole country has to come here to solve it(通常改成this problem). 动词和介词后面,人称代词要用宾格

举个栗子:Among all those people and me(不要填I啊), only a small boy could answer the question. which指代问题
举个栗子:The boy moved to a small town in Smallville, which has a population of 4000 people. 1. , which 后的从句一般接动词(that和which的定语从句,一般不是缺主语,就是缺宾语) 2. by which 这类的介词加which后面一般都是主谓宾完整的句子 举个栗子:the government passed a law, by which the companies behaved. Whereby=by which/in which/according to which/from which/to which/of which 3. one of which后的从句接动词

一个完整句子,one of which is about …….
一个完整句子,one of them chooses to make……
一个完整句子,one of them choosing to ……
一个完整句子,with one of them choosing to ….
of it doing对的情况
举个栗子:Maukins wrote a book, Amie, about his best friend; however, he tried to prevent its publication on the grounds of it not being sufficiently polished. Of+代词+doing这种结构不是很好,因为修饰不明确。 小原则:定语从句一般修饰前面邻近的主要名词 举个栗子: Jason decided to live in a small town in the south of Paris, which has a population of 1000 people. 这里的which从句,不是修饰Paris就是修饰small town。 Jason owed Tom three dollars, and he thus held him in contempt.

比较
总原则:比较的对象要一致,比较不遵循平行原则,但要意思上对称。 举个栗子:The population of China is larger than that of the United States.

比较级的常考形式
more than
better than
unlike
like
compared with/compared to
in comparison with
in contrast with
similar to
contrary to
contrasted with Henry, Bob is more beautiful.

举个栗子:
一般难度:unlike those of the painter, the qualities of the writers are quite good. 高级难度:Unlike in his other books, in Virginia’s new novel he talks about a small boy…

比较级的倒装(优化句子)
The air inside the classroom contains less oxygen than does that out in the open air where a lot of trees are grown.

Aloe Vera is such a plant whose leaves is extracted from a gel that has………

As….as的省略
The house is as beautiful as the garage but more expensive. The house is more expensive than the garage, but as beautiful. Compared with A, B is more expensive.
This house is more expensive than that bike compared to…… B is more expensive compared with A
I have more money than Jason does.
The textbook has more pictures than the cartoon does.

主谓一致
总原则:句子的谓语动词根据主语的单复数来定。

根据A 来定
A together with B
A as well as B
A in addition to B
A along with B
A plus B

Apple tastes worse than water.

根据B来定
either A or B
Either these boys or viktor does not go to school.
neither A nor B

注意双主语的错误
Jason, a technician from the next door, he helped me fix the problems of the cable.

A number of和a lot of后面的谓语动词用复数,其他的a ~ of后面的谓语动词用单数。 ---A----of----B----
主谓一致的倒装
in the room lies a collection of books that were imported from the United Kingdom. Surprisingly little is known about the news……

时态
总原则:时态分为三个范畴,过去-现在-将来,用什么时态要根据句意来定。

when/while/after/before/until前后两句话的时态都要在同一个时态范畴 举个栗子:When I came in, my mom was washing the dishes.

特例:Twenty years after he was murdered, his mother now feels better.

特例:By 1998, the local economy was suffering greatly because of the bribery issues. 用过去进行时来表示过去完成时

by 1998, ….was + adj…..

By 1998, Shenzhen was quite popular among foreigners.

Between/during/from……to用一般过去时
举个栗子:Between 1990 and 1998, the local people...
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