Topics: Sanskrit, Indo-European languages, Indo-Aryan languages Pages: 25 (6594 words) Published: August 23, 2010
संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam
Pronunciation [sə̃skɹ̩t̪əm]
Spoken in Greater India
Total speakers 14,135 native speakers in India (2001)[1]
Language family Indo-European

* Indo-Iranian
o Indo-Aryan
+ Sanskrit

Writing system Devanāgarī (de facto), various Brāhmī–based scripts, and Latin alphabet Official status
Official language in India (Uttarakhand)
one of the 22 scheduled languages of India
Regulated by No official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1 sa
ISO 639-2 san
ISO 639-3 san
Indic script

Sanskrit (संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam, properly saṃskṛtā vāk, later also saṃskṛtabhāṣā, "refined speech"), is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and Buddhism[note 1]. Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India[2] and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[3]

Classical Sanskrit is the standard register as laid out in the grammar of Pāṇini, around the 4th century BCE. Its position in the cultures of Greater India is akin to that of Latin and Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of the Indian subcontinent, particularly in India and Nepal.[4]

The pre-Classical form of Sanskrit is known as Vedic Sanskrit, with the language of the Rigveda being the oldest and most archaic stage preserved, its oldest core dating back to as early as 1500 BCE.[5] This qualifies Rigvedic Sanskrit as one of the oldest attestations of any Indo-Iranian language, and one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family, the family which includes English and most European languages.[6]

The corpus of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of poetry and drama as well as scientific, technical, philosophical and Hindu religious texts. Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals in the forms of hymns and mantras. Spoken Sanskrit is still in use in a few traditional institutions in India and there are many attempts at revival. Contents

* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
o 2.1 Vedic Sanskrit
o 2.2 Classical Sanskrit
o 2.3 Decline
o 2.4 European scholarship
* 3 Phonology
o 3.1 Vowels
o 3.2 Consonants
o 3.3 Phonology and Sandhi
* 4 Writing system
o 4.1 Romanization
* 5 Grammar
o 5.1 Grammatical tradition
o 5.2 Verbs
o 5.3 Nouns
o 5.4 Personal Pronouns and Determiners
o 5.5 Compounds
o 5.6 Syntax
o 5.7 Numerals
* 6 Influence
o 6.1 Modern-day India
+ 6.1.1 Influence on vernaculars
+ 6.1.2 Revival attempts
o 6.2 Symbolic usage
o 6.3 Interaction with other languages
o 6.4 Usage in modern times
o 6.5 Computational linguistics
* 7 See also
* 8 Notes
* 9 References
* 10 Bibliography
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
o 12.1 Software
o 12.2 Sanskrit documents
o 12.3 Primers

[edit] Etymology
The word 'Sanskrit' in Devanagari script

The Sanskrit verbal adjective saṃskṛta- may be translated as "put together", "well or completely formed", "refined", "highly elaborated".[7] It is derived from the root saṃ(s)kar- "to put together, compose, arrange, prepare",[8] where saṃ- "together" (as English same) and (s)kar- "do, make". The language referred to as saṃskṛta "the cultured language" has by definition always been a "sacred" and "sophisticated" language, used for religious and learned discourse in ancient India, and contrasted with the languages spoken by the people, prākṛta- "natural, artless, normal, ordinary". It is also called dēva-bhāṣā meaning the "divine language" or the "language of devas or demigods". [edit] History

Devimahatmya manuscript on palm-leaf, in an early...
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