Analytical Critique Writing Assignment
HY 121 Spring 2005
Royal Melendy writes about a rising social culture taking place at the turn of the twentieth century. He depicts this culture as the ambiance emitted in early Chicago saloons. "Saloons served many roles for the working-class during this period of American history, and were labeled as the poor man's social clubs" (summary of saloon culture, pg. 76).
Saloons were described as part of the neighborhood. An institution recognized and familiar to its people. Many laws restricted their services; however, they continued to exist. The article talks about two types of saloons. The first being the more upscale in downtown districts. These would close around midnight not in accordance to law, but demand. The other type Melendy calls "saloons [of] workingmen's districts" (Melendy, pg. 77). He illustrates these clubs as home away from home. They supplied the basis of food supply for those whose home was in the street or for those residents of cheap lodging establishments. It is even stated that many saloons provided free lunches.
The article discusses the need for these early Chicago saloons as a neighborhood commune for those men who labor long hours only to come home to poverty and despair of a desolate household. Melendy focuses on the mental, physiological, and moral nature of these workingmen. He points out that this saloon culture allows it's patrons to develop these traits by interacting with their peersothers facing the same despair. These establishments are described as the "workingman's school. He is both scholar and teacher" (Melendy pg. 78). Patrons gather at the bar, around tables and in the next room amongst games of pool, cards, and darts to discuss political and social problems, sporting news, and other neighborhood gossip. Here men, native and immigrant, exchange opinions and views of patriotism, brotherhood, and lessons in civil government. Melendy describes this atmosphere as cosmopolitan, and articulates that these businesses advertise this issue in their names. For example one of the downtown saloons was entitled "Everybody's Exchange." The saloon's customers experienced a buffet of nationalities upon which was not so for those of poverty in previous decades. Saloons also served as disguises of corruption as Melendy illustrates by declaring "they learn their lessons in corruption and vice. It is their school for good and evil" (Melendy, pg. 78). The article also describes saloons as a meeting place for musical practice, fraternal organizations, political meetings, and celebrations such as anniversaries and wedding receptions. As published in A Millennium Biography, Chicago in 1900: Interior of an 1890's South Side Saloon from: History of Chicago and Souvenir of the Liquor Interest...p.145 Taverns were not all dens of vice and iniquity. In 1900 Chicago had 6,395 licensed retail saloons. Many had accommodations for dancing parties and lodge meetings. Some had restaurant departments attached. Lange's Pavilion at 445 Milwaukee Avenue (1896) advertised itself as a "family resort with a music pavilion where vocal and instrumental musical entertainments are given in connection with a vaudeville stage." Engel's Opera Pavilion at 463-65 E. Clark Street also featured the music of a 12 piece orchestra, appearing nightly. Mr. Engel assured the public that it was "strictly high-toned...no ladies need blush". Other establishments catered only to men. Patrick Daly then at 1600 S. State Street probably did not blush when he advertised that "a woman shall never be allowed in his place - neither will he permit a disreputable character to frequent the premises." Other taverns catered to Scandinavian working men, to the Irish, to Germans, to Italians. They catered to singing societies, to businessmen and sportsmen (the owner frequently being an acknowledged expert in a particular sport from horse racing to dog breeding, to bowling). (Millennium...
References: A Millennium Biography, Chicago in 1900. (October 1999). Available at:
Melendy, Royal. "The Saloon in Chicago," The American Journal of Sociology, 6 (November 1900): 289-306. Above references with page numbers note an excerpt of this article as published in For the Record: A Documentary History of America from Reconstruction through Contemporary Times. Edited by David E. Shi and Holly A. Mayer. Other references denote the full length article available at:
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