of children and young people
Outcome 1 Understand the main legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding children and young people
1.1 Outline current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures within own UK Home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and young people
The Children’s Act 1989
The Children’s Act 1989 gave every child the right to protection from abuse and exploitation and the right to inquiries to safeguard their welfare.
Every Child Matters
Every Child Matters is a set of reforms supported by the Children Act 2004. Its aim is for every child, whatever their background or circumstances, to have the support they need to stay safe. The Childrens 2004
The Act provides a legislative spine for the wider strategy for improving children's lives. This covers the universal services which every child accesses, and more targeted services for those with additional needs. 1.2 Explain child protection within the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people
Safeguarding children is a lot broader that child protection as it also includes the prevention of child abuse or neglect. After the death of Victoria Climbie in February 2000 Every Child Matters was created to prevent any sort of child abuse. It involves the whole community in keeping children safe and promoting their welfare. Child protection in the wider concept of safeguarding is knowing, exactly what to do if you suspect a child to be at risk, making sure that their needs and safety are met and not put at further risk or harm. All education staff plays a part in keeping children safe and creating a safe learning environment and identifying any children who are suffering or at risk of harm and then taking appropriate action.
1.3 Analyse how national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding affect day-to-day work with children and young people
Within day-to-day childcare practice, it is a legal requirement that effective safeguarding of children’s policies and procedure are to be followed. The provider must ensure that all members of staff understand the safeguarding policy and procedure. All these policies and legislation impacts upon the way staff work within childcare practice. Risk assessments need to be made on a continual basis. All staff must be mindful of child protection issues and know who to delegate to. Staff must ensure that a child’s safety is important and if there is any inkling that a child is being abused, staff must support the child and become their advocate, ensuring the needs of the child and their safety is their main concern.
1.4 Explain when and why inquiries and serious case reviews are required and how the sharing of the findings informs practice
Inquires and serious case reviews are required when a child dies and neglect or abuse is suspected, has been subjected to serious sexual abuse or sustains a serious injury. Inquiries and serious case reviews are required to establish the facts and analyse professional activity undertaken within the case. It also enables them to establish whether there are lessons to be learnt from the case about the way local professionals and organisations work together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Sharing of these findings informs practice by identifying that what those lessons are, and how they will be acted upon. Serious case reviews are of little value unless lessons are learnt.
1.5 Explain how the processes used by own work setting or service comply with legislation that covers data protection, information handling and sharing
Information, which is gathered by the school in the context of safeguarding and child protection, must be use for that purpose only. If any parents/carers are concerned or wish to know the information which is held about them, they have right to access to it. There are only a few exceptions to this:
Information which may cause serious harm
Information give to a court or in adoption or parental order records
Personal information or information which is held manually and not in school records
Outcome 2 Understand the importance of working in partnership with Other organisations to safeguard children and young people
2.1 Explain the importance of safeguarding children and young people Children need to feel safe, secure and that they can trust the people around them especially in the school setting because they spend most of their day there. It is important for them to feel protected from harm to help them learn and thrive. Children achieve best when they are healthy, safe and their welfare is protected. For some children school can be a break away from an unhappy life at home, making sure that they have eaten, have a drink and are encouraged to speak out and most importantly, they are listened to. This will make a huge difference to them. Protecting children is a vital part of our job and under no circumstances would a child be allowed to leave school with anyone else other than the person that we know and trust.
2.2 Explain the importance of a child or young person centered approach
A child-centered approach is important, as it will ensure that the child is considered first before anyone else. It also makes sure that the knowledge that a child has about what they want and need provides information about what is the best thing to do. Children are vulnerable and are not always mature enough to deal with certain situations that even we as adults would struggle to deal with. It is of most importance at my school that the safeguarding of children is our main priority protecting them from harm, abuse or neglect and enabling them to have opportunities and life chances to enter adult life successfully. Children spend most of their day at school and most teaching staff form good relationships with them, it is important that we listen to what children have to say. All children are individual and so one child may react different to another child so taking a child centered approach means that each child will be dealt with according to their needs and abilities.
2.3 Explain what is meant by partnership working in the context of safeguarding
Partnership working means that, all agencies and professionals work together to safeguard children. Each professional or agency will have a different role to play but each of them is all as important. Good communication between them all is vital and failing to do so could mean that a child who is suffering will be left unnoticed. Police, health visitors, GP, hospitals, child minders, nursery, school, after school clubs, leisure clubs, social workers, family, friends, neighbours and the local community are all responsible for safeguarding children before it reaches crisis point.
2.4 Describe the roles and responsibilities of the different organisations that may be involved when a child or young person has been abused or harmed
When a child has been harmed or abused the head teacher will be the first person to deal with it, she then has a duty to record and report this information. Social services and the designated senior person for child protection will get involved in the case; they may have previous information on the child and his/her family. The school nurse may be called in to examine the child to see if there are any significant injuries, marks and bruises that may need urgent attention, the nurse will then write a report up with details of what was found. Social services may need to remove the child from their carer and place them in temporary foster care whilst their carer is investigated. A team of police officers from venerable families may need to be involved, they will provide any support for the child or carer if it is needed, in some cases it can be just one carer that is abusing the child and the other person was not aware of this or was too frightened to speak out so they may need counselling.
Outcome 3 Understand the importance of ensuring children and young people’s safety and protection in the work setting
3.1 Explain why it is important to ensure children and young people are protected from harm within the work setting See 2.1
3.2 Explain policies and procedures that are in place to protect children and young people and adults who work with them
There are many policies and procedures to protect children and those working with them. The Data Protection Act policy provides guidelines on safe recording of incidents, as does the Behaviour policy with guidelines on incident reporting and sharing concerns. As well as policies such as RIDDOR. The Data Protection Act policy also covers issues such as the use of photography and videos advising that images of pupils and staff may be classed as personal data under the terms of the Data Protection Act 1998. Safeguarding policies states the importance of listening to children and young people in order to provide a child centred safe environment.
3.3 Evaluate ways in which concerns about poor practice can be reported whilst ensuring that whistle blowers and those whose practice or behavior is being questioned are protected. My school policy encourages all staff members to openly discuss any concerns about colleague’s poor practice with the head teacher rather than dismissing the problem and whistle blowing outside of the school. They can raise theses concerns without fear of harassment or victimization. The head teacher would be the person to discuss these concerns with, if it were the head teacher that you had a concern with it would be the chair of governors that you would raise the concerns with. All concerns will be treated in confidence and every effort will be made not to reveal your identity if you so wish. At some point further down the line, you may need to come forward as a witness. If an allegation is made frivolously or maliciously or for personal gain, disciplinary action may be taken against you. It is important not to gossip with colleagues about your concerns and remain professional about it at all times.
3.4 Explain how practitioners can take steps to protect themselves within their everyday practice in the work setting and on off site visits
When working with children it is important that we protect ourselves at all times, avoiding any incidents that could cause wrong allegations against us. When I was based in reception class, I quite often had to change children’s clothing because they had wet or soiled themselves. When I did this I always make sure that I had another member of staff present to witness everything that I did. I always ask the child to try to remove their clothing themselves especially their underwear. I encouraged them to wipe themselves, if this is not possible and I had to clean them, having someone else present would reduce any wrong allegations against me. It is always a good idea to try and not be left alone with any child in a classroom or any other room, if this is not possible then it is important that the door is kept open at all times. In my private life, it is important that we do not contact any children out of school either in person, telephone or on any sort of social networking site. When we are on off site visits, it is important to keep my mobile out of sight and must never take any personal photographs. The only photographs that are to be taken are on the school cameras for school purposes. If any children need to visit the bathroom it is a good idea to make sure that another member of staff is present.
Outcome 4 Understand how to respond to evidence or concerns that a Child or young person has been abused or harmed
4.1 Describe the possible signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern in the context of safeguarding
Type of abuse
Signs and indicators
Burns and schools – clear outline of burn. Burn is on unusual place of the body. Recurrent burns not treated. Shape of the burn e.g. cigarette, handprint or belt marks. Malnourished due to poor diet, lack of food and vitamin deficiency. Poor physical development and dental problems. Dirty, unsuitable clothing and footwear. Untreated medical problems such as sight and hearing.
Behavioural difficulties such as being aggressive, demanding and disobedient. Low self-esteem and poor concentration. Difficulty keeping friendships. Stealing or telling lies. Clingy or attention seeking behaviour. Unable to express themselves. Demonstrate the same kind of approach and reaction to everything.
Demonstrating too much knowledge and interest in sexual matters. Using seductive behaviour towards adults. Usually using sexually explicit language. Drawings and stories that indicate sexual awareness and interest is unusual for the child’s age. Genital itching. Showing shame and fear of adults. Being unapproachable, never talk about family life.
Regression. Frightened of walking around in school. Not achieving academical. Cry them to sleep. Become withdrawn and have a lack of confidence. Appear distracted and unable to concentrate. Wetting their bed. Occasionally becoming a bully themselves to take out their anger and frustration on others. They might target people weaker or younger than themselves. bullying others boosts their self-esteem and experience of being stronger and superior to others.
Demonstrates lack of trust and withdrawn behaviour. Malnourished due to poor diet. Shows low self-esteem. Might seek attention. Failing to thrive due to lack of medical care. Shows little or poor social skills, cannot relate to people and does not know how to celebrate achievement. Does not mention family life, never has a story about the weekend or just says spend time in room on own or being out with carer\babysitter. Hardly has experience about spending time with family.
4.2 Describe the actions to take if a child or young person alleges harm or abuse in line with policies and procedures of own setting
In my setting, I know the procedure to take if a child discloses any kinds of harm or abuse towards them. It is important that I note this down word for word as the child has said it, making sure that I do not ask any direct questions or influence what they may be trying to say. This information must be dated with the exact time and given to the head teacher so that she can deal with it. I know I must tell the child that I cannot keep this to myself and that I must inform the head teacher, making sure that I reassure them, they have done nothing wrong and that they are not in any trouble. Keeping them calm and comforting them is very important as they may be feeling very frightened that they have told somebody. This sort of information is very confidential so I know that I must never tell anybody else about this except my class teacher and the head teacher unless the head teacher needs me to speak to outside agencies about it.
4.3 Explain the rights that children, young people and their carers have in situations where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged
Children and their families have the right to remain safe and protected whilst in school. If bullying is suspected or alleged, it is important that we act on it straight away. All children and their families have every right to ask questions, want to know every detail about what has been happening, and what we as teaching and support staff have done to prevent it and how we have dealt with it. We must listen to both sides of the story and encourage parents/carers to do the same. Parents/carers expect us to keep them informed on what is happening and they need to be reassured that their child will be supported and protected whilst on the school premises. They will also expect us to deal with the child accused of bullying effectively and appropriately involving their parents/carers and taking any necessary actions against them. If parents/carers feel that they are not satisfied with our actions and the way we have dealt with the bullying, they are within their rights to go through the complaints procedure. They can complain to the chair of governors or they could go to the local education authorities.
Outcome 5 Understand how to respond to evidence or concerns that a Child or young person has been bullied
5.1 Explain different types of bullying and the potential effects on children and young people
Effects of bullying can be very serious, if bullying persists children can become depressed, which can lead to isolation and eating disorders. Parents can be left with a feeling of complete helplessness as their child withdraws from them. Children can become very lonely, as they are to unwilling to engage in social activities through fear of being bullying further. They can become disengaged at school, leading to poor academic achievement. This can be a great strain on families as often parents can become frustrated at their child’s lack of communication.
Bullying may be:
5.2 Outline the policies and procedures that should be followed in response to concerns or evidence of bullying and explain the reasons why they are in place
Considerations crucial in an effective anti-bullying policy:
An assessment of bully/victim problems at the start of the implementation. Anti-bullying awareness, having designated time to inform children/staff/families of the issues. Effective supervision during breaks and lunch hour by adults. Consistent and immediate consequences for aggressive behaviour. Generous praise for pro-social and helpful behaviour from children. Specific class rules against bullying.
Class discussions about bullying.
Serious individual talks with bullies and with victims.
Serious talks with parents of bullies and victims.
A meeting of the school parent-teacher organisation on the topic of bullying.
Anti-bullying policies and procedures are in place to protect children and staff from all types of bullying. To give guidance on what to do if bullying is suspected and prevent recurrence of bullying. They are important aspects of the wider policy of safeguarding.
5.3 Explain how to support a child or young person and/or their family when bullying is suspected or alleged
An important starting point is to realise that many victims are very reluctant to tell adults of their problems, they may be ashamed to be a victim, and they are afraid that adults cannot or will not help to resolve the situation. They may have been threatened with retaliation if they tell. The victim and bully both need intervention in order to stop the pattern. Some important strategies in stopping bullying are: providing good supervision for children; providing effective consequences to bullies; using good communication between teachers and parents; providing all children opportunities to develop good interpersonal skills; and creating a social context which is supportive and inclusive, in which aggressive, bully behaviour is not tolerated by the majority. Schools can intervene effectively to reduce bullying by developing a safe and supportive school climate. A well-implemented anti-bullying policy with parent, teacher, and community support can reduce bullying markedly. Support should be offered to not only the child but their family as well. Teachers should communicate with parents, to work in collaboration with them to stop the bullying and support the victim.
Outcome 6 Understand how to work with children and young people to support their safety and wellbeing
6.1 Explain how to support children and young people’s self-confidence and self-esteem
Having high self-esteem and confidence means:
Liking yourself and feeling good about the way you are
Having the confidence to try new challenges
Feeling you can achieve the things you set out to do
Not being afraid to keep on trying if you get things wrong or fail occasionally Feeling confident and optimistic about the future
The way in which we treat children has a direct effect on this, so it is important that we encourage and praise children whenever possible, allow them to feel independent and value each child has an individual.
6.2 Analyze the importance of supporting resilience in children and young people
Resilience is being able to cope with life events, children need it to make them stronger, give them effective coping skills and management skills through tough times.
Ways of building resilience include:
Making children feel safe
Answering questions honestly, age appropriately and clearly. Helping children keep perspective on situations
Encouraging children to share their feelings
Enlisting children’s help
6.3 Explain why it is important to work with the child or young person to ensure they have strategies to protect themselves and make decisions about safety
When a child is suspected of being bullied it is important that we take time to listen to what they have to say, never dismiss the allegations of bullying. I must always inform my class teacher of this and she will deal with it accordingly. Reassuring the child and their family that the matter is being dealt with and that we are here to protect their children and will not allow bullying to continue. Making the child and family feel that they are within their rights to speak and show their concerns and that they are able to contact you if they feel the need to. It is also important to explain that the person or persons that are doing the bullying have been spoken to and have had their family is involved and that this sort of behaviour will not be tolerated. Children who are affected by bulling need to feel safe and they can come and talk to you about their concerns.
6.4 Explain ways of empowering children and young people to make positive and informed choices that support their well being and safety
It is important to work with children to ensure they have strategies to protect themselves and make decisions about their safety, as it is our responsibility to safeguard them and failing to give children such strategies will leave them vulnerable to dangers.
Activities that promote an understanding of their personal safety include: Stranger danger
Using quizzes, colorings pictures, storybooks etc to help children identify who a stranger is and the possible dangers
Using videos and role-play children learn the dangers of roads, are taken out in small groups wearing high visibility clothing, and are taught to stop, look, listen and look again before crossing etc.
Through regular fire drills and visits from fire officers, children can learn the dangers of fires, never to play with matches and what to do if they hearing the smoke alarm go off at home.
They are many online resources with fun characters to teach children all about the dangers of using the internet and social networking sites.
Outcome 7 Understand the importance of e-safety for children and young people
7.1 Explain the risks and possible consequences for children and young people of being online and of using a mobile phone
The risks of using the internet, mobile phones and other types of technology such as games consoles can be very dangerous to children/ young people. Too much information can sometimes be given out such as, their full names, where they live and where they are going to. Photographs can also be put on the internet and on mobile phones. If this information gets into the wrong hands of the wrong person they could find out where the child is going and on what day they are going, what they look like and they can follow them and cause them harm. On social networking sites children can accept friends from all over the world so explaining to them that unless they know the person to never accept their friend request as this person claiming to be 15 years old could well be a middle aged man who grooms young vulnerable children and encouraged them to meet up. The children may have fallen for the story and believe they are meeting up with a 15 year old and go and meet them, it is only when they get there and realize it’s not but by then it could be too late. Photographs can never be truly erased from a computer and neither can your personal information, these photos can get in the wrong hands and be quite easily distributed on the web to pedophiles across the world. Personal information, chatting and photos can also be done on game consoles too so the dangers can be quite the same.
7.2 Describe ways of reducing risk to children and young people from: a) social networking
b) internet use
c) buying online
d) using a mobile phone
It is important that children/ young people who are using social networking sites are the appropriate age to do so; there is an age restriction of 13 years on most social networking sites. They need to be made aware of all the possible risks that come with these sites. It is vital that parents/ carers monitor what their child is doing and most importantly, whom they are talking too. Educating your child about the dangers of displaying your personal information on the web and the dangers of who they may be talking to as they are not always the people they claim to be is one of the first things you should do before allowing them onto these sites. You need to be honest and realistic when speaking about these dangers but also making sure that this does not scare them too much. When using the internet it is a good idea to have your computer in a room such as your sitting room as opposed to your Childs bedroom, this way you can clearly see what sort of websites they are going on. There are parental control settings that can prevent children entering certain websites; you can also put a time limit control on so that they are only allowed on for a certain period. In schools, all our laptops are protected so that the only websites the children can go on are appropriate to school learning. Mobile phones now have internet use and some have settings so that you can chat to friends and write things like; where you are, what you are doing. These can be misused and bullying can occur, again by educating them what sorts of things are acceptable to write and what sorts of things are not acceptable can reduce risks to them. If bullying is happening to children online, it is important that they know to report it straight away to an adult and to delete them completely so they cannot be contacted again. Keeping it to themselves can make them very sad and cause them to do serious harm to themselves because they do not know where to turn to talk to about it.