Unit 4222 – 205 Principles of safeguarding and protection in health and social care
Credit value 3
1. Know how to recognise signs of abuse
1.1 / 1.2 Define the following types of abuse / Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each Physical abuse - the non accidental use of physical force on an individual resulting in pain. Examples of Physical abuse include hitting, inappropriate restraint and misuse of withholding medication. Evidence of physical abuse includes slap marks, lacerations and injuries that can’t be easily explained.
Sexual Abuse - direct or indirect involvement in sexual activity without valid consent. Examples of sexual abuse include Rape, indecent exposure, verbal or physical harassment. Evidence includes – noticeable change in an individual’s behaviour, pregnancy, self harming.
Emotionally / psychological abuse – the use of threats, humiliation, bullying and other verbal conduct with the effect of causing distress to an individual. Examples – verbal intimidation, humiliation, enforced social isolation. Evidence includes – low self esteem deference, passivity, emotional withdrawal, sleep disturbance. Financial Abuse - Financial Abuse is "the unauthorised and improper use of funds, property or any resources belonging to an individual". People who financially abuse may hold a position of trust, power, and authority or has the confidence of the individual who is being abused. Examples – theft of money or of benefits or property and preventing access to money or inheritance.
Evidence – sudden change in ability to play bills, unusual activity on an individual’s account and inappropriate interest from family member’s money and assets. Institutional abuse - arises from an unsatisfactory regime. Abuse occurs when the routines, systems and norms of an institution take precedence over the needs of the individual. Such regimes compel individuals to sacrifice their own preferred life style and cultural diversity in favour of the interests of those there to support them, and others. This can be the product of both ineffectual management styles, creating a climate within which abuse, intentional or otherwise, is perpetrated by individual staff and others.
Examples - Inflexible routines and procedures that suit the staff rather than service users (e.g. meal and bath times at specific times). Evidence –
Denial of visitors or phone calls;
Restricted access to toilet or bathing facilities;
Restricted access to appropriate medical or social care;
Failure to ensure appropriate privacy or personal dignity;
Lack of flexibility and choice, e.g. mealtimes and bedtimes, choice of food; Lack of personal clothing or possession
Self Neglect / Neglect by others Neglect is 'the repeated deprivation of assistance vulnerable individuals need for important activities of daily living, including a failure to intervene in behaviour which is dangerous to the Adult at Risk or to others, and poor manual handling techniques. 'Under the Mental Capacity Act 2005 wilful neglect and ill treatment of a person lacking capacity becomes a criminal offence. Examples include
Neglect of physical and emotional needs;
Deprivation of food, clothing, medical attention, or aids;
Physical condition of the individual is poor, e.g. pressure ulcers, unwashed and unkempt; Inadequate physical environment;
Untreated injuries or medical problems;
Inconsistent or reluctant contact with health or social care agencies; Failure to engage in social interaction;
Malnutrition when not living alone;
Medical condition not treated due to failure to give prescribed medication; Poor personal hygiene.
2. Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse
2.1 Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that individual is being abused Report to the appropriate person(s) in my case would be my Line Manager. Record the facts on...
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