S121 unit 2 assignment

Topics: Cholesterol, Fatty acid, Nutrition Pages: 8 (1434 words) Published: October 14, 2014
Cholesterol, the good, the bad and the ugly!
Miranda Parker
Kaplan University

Abstract
Trans fat is double trouble for your health. Trans fat raises your LDL (low density lipoprotein) “bad” Cholesterol and lowers your HDL (high density lipoprotein) “good: cholesterol. Trans fat is considered by many doctors to be the worst type of fat you can eat. A high LDL cholesterol level in combination with a low HDL cholesterol level increases your risk of heart disease, the leading killer of men and women. Trans fat is formed through an industrial process that ads hydrogen to vegetable oil, which causes the oil to become solid at room temperature. The manufactures form of trans fat, known as partially hydrogenated oil, is found in variety of food products, including: Baked goods. Cookies, cakes, pie crusts and crackers

Snacks. Potato chips, tortilla chips and microwaveable popcorn Fried foods
Refrigerator dough
Creamer and margarine
How can trans fats harm you? If the fatty deposits within your arteries tear or rupture, a blood clot may form and block blood flow to your heart, causing a heart attack, or to a part of your brain, causing a stroke. Keywords: Trans fats, HDL, LDL

Cholesterol, the good, the bad and the ugly!
Why are lipids important?
Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat). Lipids are substances that do not dissolve in water but are soluble in organic solvents. Lipids have several important roles in the body providing a source of energy, an important part of the membrane surrounding every body cell, the basic building blocks from which several hormones (chemical messengers) and bile acids (digestive juices) are made, and components of the nervous system. The body contains several lipids. Some are vital components of your brain. Important group includes phospholipids, which resemble triglycerides in structure. The difference is that one of the fatty acid groups is replaced by one that contains phosphorus. This alters the properties of the molecule because half of its structure is soluble in fat whereas the other dissolves in water. These dual solubility properties allow phospholipids to act as detergents and together with special proteins, phospholipids are able to interact with cholesterol and triglycerides to form packages of lipids that are stable in water. Can the body produce essential fatty acids (EFA’s)? If not, how does the body obtain these needed lipids?1 Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) include linoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha linoleic-acid (omeg-3. These fatty acids are not produced by our bodies, but our bodies need and use them to make other fatty acids, which is why they are referred to as essential. EFAs can be found in fish and shellfish, flaxseed (linseed), hemp oil, soya oil, canola oil, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, leafy vegetables and walnuts. What are the benefits of Omega-3 and Omega 6 fatty acids?

Both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are important components of the cell membranes and are precursors to many other substances in the body such as those involved with regulating blood pressure and inflammatory responses. These fatty acids are needed for growth and repair. There is also growing interest in the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of diabetes and certain types of cancer. Excessive amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and a very high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today's Western diets, promote the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 PUFA (a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio) exert suppressive effects. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a ratio of 4/1 was associated with a 70% decrease in total mortality. A ratio of 2.5/1 reduced rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal cancer, whereas a ratio of 4/1 with the same amount of omega-3 PUFA had no effect. The lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio in women with breast...


References: Mayo Clinic (2014). High Cholesteral.. http://www.mayoclinic.org , Pages 1 - 2
Family Doctor Health Information (2014). Lipids important to the body. http://www.familydoctor.co.uk
Orthomolecular Health. Essential Fatty Acids. http://www.orthomolecularhealth.com
European Food Information Council (2008). The Importance of Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids. http://www.eufic.org/
The Center for Genetics, Nutrition and Health, Washington, DC 2009, USA. cgnh@bellatlan
Encyclopedia Britannica (2014). Cell. http://www.britannica.com
WebMD (2014). The Basics of Cholesterol. http://www.webmd.com
Fatsecret (2014) http://www.fatsecret.com/
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