Rwanda Genocide Literature Review

Topics: Rwandan Genocide, United Nations, Peacekeeping Pages: 7 (1601 words) Published: September 29, 2014
The following work represents the importance of leadership in the Rwanda Genocide of 1994 and the many factors that lead to the tragedy. This literature demonstrates the history and tribal relationship of Hutus and Tutsis leading to the Genocide in 1994 and most importantly why international intervention could not prevent the mass murder of 800,000 people. Prior to the genocide, Rwanda was under extended period of colonial dominance by the Belgium. During that time a powerful group of Roman Catholic missionaries was obsessed with the notions of race. Under colonial ruling, "race" became the control determinant of power; as a consequence, "race" became a symbol of oppression (Straus 2013). Deeply rooted in Rwanda, Hutus were unhappy with the differential treatment under the colonial ruling that Tutsis were privileged over Hutus. After Rwanda was granted independence, Hutus were in control of Rwanda. Hutus revoked all privileges that Tutsis entitled and latter pogroms were launched against the Tutsis. Tutsis formed a guerilla army called the Rwanda Patriotic Front. RPF started invading Rwanda creating a wide spread of violence. A peace agreement came by and the RPF and the Rwandan government sign the peace agreement and it was agreed that UN(United Nation) will monitor the peace agreement and prevent further bloodshed that will put the peace agreement at risk. The focus of this analysis would be General Romeo Dallaire who was the Force Commander for United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR). Dallaire was hammered with a great deal of resistance along the way. In the beginning he was sent to conduct assessment of the situation in order to make recommendations for the mission. Dallaire knew that he had a tight timeline to follow. Following his assessment, he was required to recommend the amount of troops that should be deployed. From his findings He had his expectations and he knew to himself that recommending a chapter seven which is sending a full force to invade Rwanda and enforce peace would not be accepted by UN. Ultimately he recommended 2,500 troops for the mission knowing ideally 5,500 troops were required. Dallaire expectations were one of the failures in preventing the genocide. Merriam-Webster dictionary define expectation as a belief that something will happen or is likely to happen. Expectations are things that are volatile and things kept changing. This is one of his mistakes as a leader that he would haunt him later. He did not have any contingency plan and as a leader he lacks foresight. Dallaire was acting too fast, executing too fast. Although time was an important concern but the amount of troops played a vital role in this genocide. The presence of this peacekeeping force is crucial in Rwanda, Dallaire decided to hold a flag-raising ceremony. The flag-raising ceremony serves as a symbolic ceremony to remind Rwanda the urgency of the peace process. We can identify Dallaire’s adaptive leadership quality as he could have used other methods to show UN’s presence. But flag-raising ceremony is executed with utmost respect and commonly practiced throughout the world. People can sense the seriousness of flag-raising and it signals identity especially on environment where communication is challenging. Issuance of power is something we should looked into in this review. Although Dallaire is the force commander for the peacekeeping operation, he has very little power to make decisions. Weber defined power as the chance of a person of number of persons to realize their own will in a communal action, even against the resistance of others (Weber 1948). It is not possible for power to be exercised without knowledge it is impossible for knowledge not to engender power (Foucault 1980). The incident where Dallaire discovered the weapon caches, he recommended to the head of mission, Booh-Booh to search and seize the weapons. Booh-Booh denied his request. After Dallaire received a tipped off that the weapons...
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