Moving Toward Universal Health Coverage
R A S H T R I Y A S W A S T H Y A B H I M A Y O J A N A (R S B Y) 1 India I. Basic Demographic and Health Statistics II. Impetus for Reform III. Summary of RSBY IV. Funding V. Population Coverage, Enrollment, and Communication VI. Benefits Package VII. Service Delivery System VIII. Provider Payment Mechanisms IX. Technology X. Monitoring and Evaluation XI. The Way Forward Basic Demographic and Health Statistics The following table presents a brief overview of some key health and demographic statistics in India i : Table I: Selected Demographic and Health Statistics, India, 2006: India (2006) Gross national income per capita (PPP international $) 2460 Population (in thousands) total 1,151,751 Per capita total expenditure on health (PPP int. $) 109 Private expenditure on health as percentage of total expenditure on health 80.4 Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) both sexes 57 Life expectancy at birth (years) female 64 Life expectancy at birth (years) male 62 Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births) 450 Impetus for Reform Health financing in India: Health care in India is financed through various sources, including individual out‐of‐pocket payments, central and state government tax revenues, external aid, and profits of private companies. National Health Accounts data shows that central, state, and local governments together account for only about 20% the total health expenditure in India, with greater than 75% of the health spend comprised of un‐pooled, out‐of‐pocket expenditures. ii This level of out‐of‐pocket expenditure is one of the highest in the world. External aid to the health sector, either to the government or via NGOs, accounted for negligible 2% of the total health expenditure. Health Delivery in India: In India, the government is both a financer as well as a provider of health care. Households, ...
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