Top-Rated Free Essay

Route Viabilty of distribution vehicles

Powerful Essays
:: PROFILE PROFILE
In a first of a kind initiative in India, the Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company (JUSCO) was carved out of Tata Steel from its Town Services Division in 2004. In JUSCO, the steel major reposed nine decades of experience and expertise. The mandate for JUSCO was to convert an obligatory service into a customer focused sustainable corporate entity.
Jamshedpur Utilities & Services Company is today India’s only comprehensive urban infrastructure service provider. A Tata Enterprise, its services focus on the Tata Group Purpose “to improve the quality of life of the communities we serve”.
The Group purpose is reflected in JUSCO’s Mission of providing “quality services for life”. Its services include water, power, infrastructure, public health and horticulture services. JUSCO works alongside civic bodies, large and small industries, local government bodies, communities and individuals to deliver value through sustainable solutions.
The Company believes that a clear sense of the Tata Values and Mission allows it to achieve immense clarity on its role for the future. JUSCO intends to rise to the challenge of meeting India's need for infrastructure development in a sustainable manner by anticipating and addressing the country's growth needs such that the ability of future generations to meet their own needs is not compromised.

MANAGEMENT TEAM
MANAGEMENT TEAM
Mr Manish Sharma
:
Managing Director
Mr Ritu Raj Sinha
:
General Manager
(Business Development & Corporate Services)
Mr K.N. Jha
:
General Manager
(Planning, Engineering & Construction)
Mr G. S. Basu
:
General Manager
(Water Divison)
Mr Sharad Kumar
:
General Manager
(Power Services)
Mr Deepak P. Kamath
:
General Manager
(HR-IR)
Mrs Shakti Sharma
:
Chief Education
Capt.
Dhananjay Mishra
:
General Manager
(Jamshedpur Town Services)
Mr Umanath Mishra
:
Chief Financial Officer
Mrs Preeti Sehgal
:
Company Secretary

SERVICES :

1) Water and Waste water
2) Power distribution
3) Engineering & construction
I) building and industrial construction
Ii) road construction & maintenance iii) design and town planning consultancy iv) township management
4) Municipal solid waste and public health

1) WATER & WASTE WATER SERVICES
Jamshedpur Utilities & Services Company provides comprehensive services in the supply of water to both industrial and domestic customers. Our range of services cover operations & maintenance of the entire water cycle from intake to treatment, conveyance and distribution. We integrate this service with capabilities such as asset management activities, GIS, billing, collection and Non Revenue Water reduction programmes. The Company was formed in 2004 and we have since ventured beyond Jamshedpur to create new facilities in water across the country apart from modernising and maintaining existing ones.
Services offered
Operation and Maintenance of Water Treatment Plants Sewage Treatment Plants, distribution networks.
Build new Water Treatment Plant and Sewage Treatment Plant on EPC or BOOT basis.
Technical and Management support to improve performance of the Water Treatment Plants, Sewage Treatment Plants and Distribution Systems.
Control of Unaccounted for Water (UFW) or Non Revenue Water (NRW).
Creation of 24 x 7 municipal water supply systems.
GIS for asset management including updating of existing drawings.
Customer support services including call centre facilities for prompt handling of complaints.

2) POWER DISTRIBUTION :
JAMSHEDPUR LICENSE AREA
The Power Services Division is responsible for the purchase, sale and distribution of electricity; augmenting and maintaining the power distribution infrastructure; as well as for municipal and town management functions in its service area.
Year after year, JUSCO uses state-of-the-art technology and processes, proactively maintains and upgrades equipment, to enhance its efficiency. The knowledge and expertise of its engineers and people, as well as a culture of excellence, allows it to maintain high quality power supply at possibly the lowest tariff in India. All of these contribute to making it one of the country’s most efficient power utilities.
Power Availability – ensuring clean and reliable power at the doorstep of every consumer
Household Consumers – enjoy the highest per capita power consumption in the country.
Industrial consumers – growth needs are matched by continuously augmenting infrastructure.
Municipal Functions.
Improvement in efficiencies.

The Power Services Division holds two licenses for the purchase, sale and distribution of electricity; augmenting and maintaining the power distribution infrastructure.
Jamshedpur Operations - India's first Private Power Utilities Company to manage operation and distribution for the entire city since 1923
Seraikela Kharsawan Operations - First district in the country where two utilities have been allowed to build parallel network for distribution of power

3) ENGINEERING & CONSTRUCTION
JUSCO offers design, construction and turnkey services as well as comprehensive EPC services; according to individual needs, it undertakes end-to-end projects or provides stand alone solutions in the areas of:
Building & Industrial Construction – geared to provide EPC Services as well as exclusive construction solutions for Residential/ Commercial/ Industrial/ Recreational requirements.
Road Construction & Maintenance – facilitating economic growth
Design & Planning Consultancy – understanding and delivering the physical planning, architectural and structural needs of modern townships
Township Management – solutions for India’s urban growth & development ROAD CONSTRUCTION & MAINTENANCE
JUSCO uses state-of-the-art technology to build, strengthen and widen roads. It has in-house capabilities to design roads and develop them as per the expected load and life span required. The Company uses a hot mix plant, laser based pave finisher and nuclear gauges for instant density testing to check the strength of the road while constructing them. It uses the latest cold paint technology for road markings. Kerbs are designed to ensure rapid water drainage and ease in vehicular traffic movement.
To ensure that its roads are environment–friendly JUSCO uses bitumen emulsion to top the roads instead of the conventional hard bitumen.

DESIGN AND TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANCY

The Company follows urban planning practices that ensure a perfect balance between land used for housing, roads and open spaces.
JUSCO’s experience in design and town planning is represented through a well laid out, clean, green city. It keeps pace with growing civic needs of the people by continuously assessing, controlling and guiding the urban growth.

Town Planning Consultancy:
JUSCO has in-house facilities to respond to a variety of physical planning solutions, including land use plan, structure plan, site plan, landscape plan, urban design, as well as comprehensive development plans forurban areas.
Design Consultancy:
The Company translates customer needs into Architectural and Structural designs, while ensuring that the requirements are fulfilled functionally, aesthetically and technically at the most economical costs.

4) Municipal Solid Waste & public health :

*

The waste managed by municipalities usually includes household waste and waste from small business, offices, restaurants, etc..

The high rate of population growth and urbanization, together with economic growth, not only accelerates consumption rates in developing cities.a, but it also accelerates the generation of waste. The amount of waste is rising to levels that are both difficult and costly to manage. In addition, poor and developing cities in the region lack the management capacity to deal with the increasing volume of waste and its changing characteristics - as a city becomes richer, its waste composition changes due to increased consumption of paper, plastics, packaging and multi-material items. In addition, poverty still leads to urban problems such as irregular settlements and scavenging. Even in economically developed Asian countries, waste management is overwhelmed by overpopulation and economic affluence.

Common problems for MSW management in developing countries in Asia include institutional deficiencies, inadequate legislation and resource constraints. Long- and short-term plans are lacking due to capital and human resource limitations. Financial constraints are one of the main barriers for proper MSW management There is a need for financing instruments for MSW management, training specialists and capacity-building. National policies are now being formulated in several countries, but a lack of effective enforcement of environmental regulations is a major problem. Recycling laws, even if they exist, are not enforced. Although there are recycling activities promoted by communities, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector, these are 'informal' and are not supported by the municipal authorities.
.

In East and South-east Asia, the private sector is becoming involved in lease and concession contracts in the construction and operation of facilities for MSW disposal. In Malaysia, waste collection and the construction/operation of MSW disposal facilities have been transferred to a number of private companies through concession contracts. Lease and concession contract projects for the construction and operation of MSW treatment facilities have also been adopted in the Philippines, Thailand, Hong Kong, Macao and Singapore. However, the private sector is often unable to acquire land for disposal sites due to opposition by local residents concerned about pollution, health risks and the loss of economic value of their property. Leadership by government and the involvement of local communities are both necessary in order to reach a compromise solution for siting waste treatment facilities.
Traditionally, waste recycling in many East Asian countries has involved individuals, private companies and the public sector. Governments are urged to encourage their continued active participation and to organize them properly by formulating relevant policies. Research into advanced recycling process technologies by universities and the private sector also needs to be encouraged.
However, the social implications of such privatization have yet to be evaluated. Fees, labour relations and the role of waste pickers and dealers are points of tension in some developing countries when privatization is introduced.

In developing Asian countries, community participation in waste management is vital for improvement while NGOs could play a more effective role in improving MSW management if they were given more recognition by municipal authorities.

Waste disposal in open dumps and landfills is a major source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Proper management of MSW can thus contribute to climate change mitigation. But financial constraints often prevent the improvement of MSW management in developing countries.

Waste generation and composition :
Accurate information on waste generation and composition is necessary to monitor existing management systems and make regulatory, financial and institutional decisions. However, reliable data are difficult to obtain in less developed and developing cities. However, the amount of waste collected by municipalities is generally much less than that generated.

The choice of processes and technologies for waste management are important but not enough to ensure sustainability. Other factors such as legislation, political will, partnerships and public participation play a fundamental role. International co-operation is one way of transferring the experiences of mature cities to developing cities. Such initiatives have already started in Asia; for instance, the Kitakyushu Initiative for a Clean Environment promotes collaboration among Asian cities. However, developing cities in Asia must follow the example of developed cities and establish an approach to MSW management that takes into account local and unique conditions.

ENVIRONMENT & WASTE MANAGEMENT :

Urban governments in many developing countries are facing serious problems with the management of solid waste. Service quality is generally poor, and costs are spiralling, often with no effective mechanisms for improved cost recovery. Two key alternatives to the present impasse are currently favored: decentralized approaches and privatization. Privatization in particular is considered a viable option, however privatisation proposals are in many cases hurried, ill thought out, and often based on developed country models, which assume a totally different technical, financial and organizational framework, particularly as regards primary collection. The fact that solutions developed for the North are often not appropriate to contexts in the South is nowhere more true than in the case of primary collection. Moreover, social relations characterizing primary waste collection in South Asian cities have certain particularities and the potential social impacts of changes resulting from privatization need to be carefully considered - this is seldom done. This research project titled: ‘Micro-enterprise Development for Primary Collection of Solid Waste’ was proposed to identify, explore and disseminate findings about the development of micro-enterprise for primary collection, working from a thorough understanding of existing systems and practices and to locate those in a broader framework of private solutions for solid waste management. Since the privatisation of all or parts of many municipal solid waste systems will take place in the coming years, this research project addresses privatisation mechanisms through involving those who are amongst the poorest and who potentially would be most disadvantaged by such changes. The main hypothesis of the project is that moves towards privatisation of primary solid waste collection should be designed from a thorough understanding of the complex interactions between a wide range of existing actors. The objective of the project is to investigate the possibilities of and conditions necessary for upgrading current sweepers’ collection systems (please see section 3.2 for details of sweepers’ system) into forms of micro-enterprise. A secondary hypothesis is that involvement of existing sweepers will improve the efficiency of primary collection. Such an approach will help to sustain and increase sweepers income, and reduce municipal responsibility and expenditure. Additional benefits include reducing socio-cultural disruption, poverty and/or unemployment. The research commenced in April 1996 and data and information has been collected from three cities of South Asia i.e. Colombo (in Sri Lanka), Dhaka (in Bangladesh) and Faisalabad (in Pakistan). In addition, secondary information was collected from some Indian cities. Three local collaborators assist in the local data and information collection and the organization of inception workshops. The preliminary literature review conducted suggests that the available literature can be categorized into five broad categories:

• Privatization: there is a large body of literature on the privatization of infrastructure and services in order to reduce government’s role, lower the cost and increase the efficiency of collection systems (for example IFC 1995, Cook and Kirkpatrick, 1988, Roth, 1988 and Cointreau, 1994). Much of the literature discusses the mechanisms for privatization, based on the experiences gained in the developed (high income) countries. Rarely is the process of privatization evaluated on the basis of adverse social impacts, these may indeed be worse in low-income developing countries and in the absence of social security systems. Recently, some gray literature on privatization in developing countries, discussed holistic approaches to privatization with a growing emphasis on integrated approaches, social privatization and community business (for example Klundert and Lardinois 1995, Batley, 1992).
• Public Private Partnership: This category considers the process of privatization in a comparatively broader social context. It discuses ways of enhancing community participation in planning and operation, protecting users rights and even considers community groups as contractors in the delivery of infrastructure and services. Most of the literature suggests ways of integrating private informal activities in primary collection. A greater community share means that the small-scale enterprises through informal sectors may also become a part of the overall privatization process (For example Gidman et al, 1995, Schubeler, 1996 and Fernandez, 1993).
• Literature on Small and Micro-Enterprises comparatively more relevant to the concerns of the proposed research is from micro-economics and management (Such as Burns and Dewhurst, 1996).
• There are very few publications, which discuss the role of micro-enterprises in solid waste management (for example UMP, 1996 and Pfammatter and Schertenleib, 1996). This body of literature has made some useful contribution in discussing the need and benefits of supporting micro-enterprises for solid waste recycling and collection. They mainly discuss the formation and structure of micro-enterprises from Latin American experience, where the concept of micro-enterprises is well accepted within municipal institutions as compared to South Asia. However, it is not clear whether the features identified from the Latin American experiences are also relevant for South Asian cities. While, small scale and micro-enterprises in solid waste recycling have been researched, for some time (for example Furedy Christine 1989 and Furedy Christine 1993). The outputs mainly focus on social aspects in different size and types of micro-enterprises. There is very little literature on the policy, planning and institutional aspects to integrate existing micro-enterprises as a privatization strategy in primary collection.

Municipal Solid Waste Management In Indian Cities:Review & Improvement Initiatives

Thrust Area :

* Description :

Introduction

With concentration of industrial and commercial activities around the city nodes, rapid urbanization attracted by large-scale migration of rural population. The Industrial Development Areas created in and around the urban centers do not cater to the needs of basic civic amenities for the migratory population.
The migrated rural Population has not been able to easily adapt to the social change and to urban living conditions. This has to a great extent contributed to the deteriorating sanitary, conditions and solid waste generation problems.
The other aspect, which contributed to the generation of solid waste, is the economic growth in the urban pockets and the consequent increase in consumerism and package disposals. Local Governments are legally bound to provide efficient and effective solid waste services. With increased population and economic activities and changing urban lifestyles, local Governments are unable to cope with the mounting solid wastes in cities.

Asian cities are home to more than one billion people today. But by 2025, Asia will be inhabited by more than four billion people - half of them in cities - and will produce more than 180 million tonnes of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day. MSW—more commonly known as trash or garbage—consists of everyday items such as product packaging, grass clippings, furniture, clothing, bottles, food scraps, newspapers, appliances, paint, and batteries.
The waste managed by municipalities usually includes household waste and waste from small business, offices, restaurants, etc. But in some countries (particularly those with limited waste legislation), it may also include waste from small industrial plants.



Waste Management

Waste management is the collection, transport, processing (waste treatment), recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. A sub focus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials' effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover resources from them.

Primary Collection

Kerbside Collection
In this collection, bags filled with garbage are kept on side of road outside houses, which are picked up by different waste collection vehicles. This collection is used in western countries and depends upon high degree of awareness among community for dropping their waste into filled packets, inside of creating spills on roadside.

Door-to-Door Collection
This collection method is most effective & suitable collection methodology in India. A tricycle is engaged with 8 bins of 25 liters capacity, which is driven by a single operator localities are selected with stoppage points. The person at predefined interval of time, stops at each stop, informs residents about his arrival with horn or bell ring. People come out with their pre-collected garbage & garbage bin is emptied into tricycle. With this use of community bins can be discouraged. Taking lessons from Suryapet municipality, a bin free system can be implemented, where there is no storage of garbage & it keeps on moving. Segregation of garbage can be achieved via this method, if implemented with sound awareness campaign.

Community Bin Collection
This method involves keeping community points, where people drop their garbage. These community bins include masonry structures, GI Sheet structures and HDPE/FRP structures. These community bins are point of nuisance and wherever new bins are proposed, the NIMBY syndrome (Not in my backyard). In Jamshedpur city, primary collection of MSW from town is done through provision of community bins in Jamshedpur.

Secondary Collection

Community Bin Collection:
In this system, small community bins are emptied into larger bins and are further transported to transfer station or disposal site. This system involves re-handling of waste and is inefficient system. This system is under practice at Jamshedpur.

Haulage of Small Bin by Bigger Hauler Vehicles
This system is also partially being used in Jamshedpur city. In this system, tricycles empty primary waste into secondary bins, which can be fixed type masonry structures or dumper buckets. The small bins are sometime directly transported to dump site or emptied at transfer stations in open masonry enclosures. From these masonry structures, garbage is loaded in tippers and finally transported to disposal site.

Transportation
This involves transportation of secondary collected waste to transfer station, or to processing facility or to disposal site. This secondary transportation is achieved via following methods:

Use of compactor vehicles
The use of compacter vehicle is present in Jamshedpur. These vehicles are fitted with hydraulic system. They lift the trolleys containing garbage and trolleys are emptied into storage space, which is pressed by a ram operated hydraulically to provide compression to garbage. These types of system are more recommended for western countries, where garbage contains less water & moisture.

Use of open Tippers
For tropical countries like India, open tipping vehicles are more desired, as these can load more amount of garbage containing moisture & water content. Side bodies of storage space of tipper can be also raised to accommodate more garbage due to less density of Indian garbage, which is normally from 350-500 kg/cum.

Use of closed Bins
This system involves transfer of closed dumper bucket bins, which are lifted hydraulically onto vehicle chassis and taken to disposal sites or waste processing facilities. This system is proposed for Jamshedpur as part of revamping of present municipal solid waste management system. These bins shall reduce number of garbage loader point, thus minimizing their fuel & operation cost.

Use of open trailers
These open trailer system are used for transportation of garbage after unloading of garbage into larger size of trailer carrying compacted or non-compacted storage bins at transfer station. These trailer systems also include rail system, which are used for long distance transportation of municipal solid waste to processing or disposal facility after transfer station.
Processing of waste
This involves changing physical & chemical form of waste to achieve its stabilization, resource recover & separation of inert material for landfilling. These are of following type:

Thermal Processing

Incineration
To reduce waste volume, local governments or private operators can implement a controlled burning process called combustion or incineration. Incineration involves combustion of waste to achieve volume reduction. Incineration is process of combustion with controlled air supply. Incinerators are available ranging in loading capacity from 50kg/hr to 500 kg/hr. These incinerators vary in indifferent designs with ranging from primary chamber to secondary chamber, rotary kiln type & fluidized bed types. In addition to reducing volume, combustors, when properly equipped, can convert water into steam to fuel heating systems or generate electricity. Incineration facilities can also remove materials for recycling. Uncontrolled burning of waste forms dioxin & furan compounds, which result from combustion of chlorinated plastic or chlorine containing waste. These pollutants can be controlled with establishment of air pollution control system such as venturi scrubber, bag filter and electrostatic precipitators.

Pyrolysis:
Pyrolysis is processes of combustion with starved supply of air. It’s a gasification process, where waste material is pyrolysed to generate producer gas, which is used to generate power via gas turbines. The RDF is normally used for gasification purpose, which are densified cubical blocks of dehydrated organic waste.

Biomethanation
Biomethanation is biochemical conversion of organic waste into methane & carbon dioxide, in the absence of oxygen. The methane is also called as biogas. This is very old technology, successfully implemented in Indian conditions. But with its limitations for MSW processing, people are still hesitant to adopt this technology.

Composting
In composting, a biochemical process occurs in which complex organic matter decomposes, through the action of microorganisms, into more stable organic matter. The results of this process are dark, humus-like materials that can be used for landscaping and certain agricultural purposes.

Because most of the plants start with mixed garbage, they must overcome the hurdle that much of the garbage is inorganic and does not break down in a composting process. Therefore, mixed municipal solid waste composting plants require before and after the composting process, sorting operations to remove inappropriate materials such as glass, metal, plastics and textiles. After sorting out the inorganic materials, the composting process can begin. To get a sense of what good large-scale composting requires, the most important factors affecting the process are:

Temperature. The temperature must be between 132 and 160 degrees Fahrenheit for a minimum of three days for a fast and successful composting process.

• Moisture. At the beginning of the composting process, digesting material should have moisture content of 50-60 percent.
• Controlled availability of oxygen. The microorganisms in the waste need the oxygen in air to oxidize carbon matter and thus cause decomposition.
• Appropriate sizing of the waste particles. A ton of waste divided into many small pieces has more surface area than a ton of waste divided into fewer, larger pieces. Increased surface area allows microorganisms more decomposing surface, resulting in faster composting.
• Chemical balance. The pH of the waste, which is a measure of acidity or alkalinity, should be maintained in the 7-8 ranges. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen is critical to the rate of composting.

In vessel Composting:
This type of composting process is energy intensive and is carried in closed reactors, where pre-segregated organic garbage is added with some stabilizer and microbial inoculation material for achieving stabilization. The process after stabilization involves drying of stabilized garbage to frame compost. The normal cycle of compost production is 15-20 days. Theses processes are operated under controlled set of parameters and involve heavy operation cost. In present text, this process has not been adopted in India on large scale due to its high operation cost & low economic feasibility.

Windrow composting
Windrow composting is done in open heaps of garbage with or with or without segregated garbage. This process is dependent upon natural degradation process, which is driven by ambient environmental factors. In this process heaps of garbage are overturned after every 15 days. After a cycle of 40 days, all inert non compostable materials are separated and compost is recovered. With respect to Indian tropical conditions, this has been most versatile technology & has been adopted in large scale throughout the country. The application of this technology is useful for agriculture as well as municipal solid waste.

Vermicomposting
Vermicomposting involves biodegradation of organic garbage by application of earthworm species. Vermicastings are earthworm excreta materials, which are of small granules shape. Earthworm feed on normal kitchen waste & garden waste. After a cycle of 40 days, vermicompost can be harvested. A plant of 50 tpd has been started by JUSCO in Jubilee Park based upon this technology. The vermicompost is better in quality as compared to other types of compost produced by windrow or in vessel composting. The vermicompost beds are prepared of husk, cow dung with thickness proportion of 2:1. Worms are released after bed preparation, and conditions such as aeration, humidity are maintained by providing shady conditions. The worms reside at a depth of 2-3 ft below surface and only come out to taker feed. This technology has been combined with windrow composting as a polishing step and being operated at a large scale. Green entrepreneurship is one new discipline, where people in rural & peripheral urban areas have taken this job and earning good money. One can rear earthworms for extra income generation in addition to selling compost.

Resource Conservation & Recovery
A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste material as a resource to be exploited, instead of simply a challenge to be managed and disposed of. The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred to as secondary resource recovery, recycling, and other terms. The practice of treating waste materials as a resource is becoming more common, especially in metropolitan areas where space for new landfills is becoming scarcer. There is also a growing acknowledgement that simply disposing of waste materials is unsustainable in the long term, as there is a finite supply of most raw materials.

Energy Recovery:
The present era of solid waste management has ushered a new concept of waste recycling & management by energy recovery from solid waste. The energy recovery from solid waste is an important aspect of waste management representing an important part of integrated solid waste management system. The energy recovery from solid waste through thermal mode is possible from various types of waste having good combustion attributed features like high calorific value & high carbon content. Refused derived fuel (RDF), a useful by-product of solid waste, scrap tire can be used to The scrap tire waste is one of industrial solid waste, which hold good promise for energy recovery options.

Use as Soil conditioner
The organic portion of waste after composting can be used as soil conditioner and give good results, when used in defined proportions with fly ash. Reuse of waste as soil conditioner is used for reclamation of barren lands, open cast mine dumps and closure of existing sanitary landfills.

Use as filling material
Use of engineering debris, with reference to inert material, construction & demolition waste can be used for filling purpose & for providing base preparation for road construction & filling of low lying areas. Fly ash as road construction material for filling & for providing daily earth cover has been recommended by people for sanitary landfills. In addition to these, fly ash is also used for making bricks, cement & other materials used for filling & construction purpose.

Plastic Recycling
Municipal solid waste in India contains 1-4 per cent by weight of plastic waste. India’s rate of recycling of plastic waste is the highest (60%) in the world as compared to other countries (China 10%, Europe 7%, Japan 12%, South Africa 16%, USA 10%). According to the American Plastics Council (APC), more than 1,800 U.S. businesses handle or reclaim post-consumer plastics. Plastics from MSW are usually collected from curbside recycling bins or drop-off sites. Then, they go to a material recovery facility, where they are sorted either mechanically or manually from other recyclables. The resulting mixed plastics are sorted by plastic type, baled, and sent to a reclaimer. At the reclaiming facility, the scrap plastic is passed across a shaker screen to remove trash and dirt, and then washed and ground into small flakes. A flotation tank then further separates contaminants, based on their different densities. Flakes are then dried, melted, filtered, and formed into pellets. The pellets are shipped to product manufacturing plants, where they are made into new plastic products.

Reuse of plastics waste in Road Construction
It has been possible to improve the performance of bituminous mixes used in the surfacing course of road pavements, with the help of various types of additives to bitumen such as polymers, rubber latex, crumb rubber- treated with some chemicals, etc. Polymer blended Bitumen shows higher Softening point, lower penetration point, and better ductility. Polymer coated aggregate blended with Bitumen shows higher Marshall Value and better stripping value showing that the mix is more suited for road laying.

Disposal

Engineering land fills
In India the environmental impact assessment exercises in the case of landfill projects are still at a development stage. Environmental legislation pertaining to the submission of an environmental impact assessment report for landfills was enacted two years ago. To date, about 50 sanitary landfill projects have been conceived, designed, and completed in India. But consideration of the environmental parameters in designing and developing these projects has been neglected. According to legislation on municipal solid waste—formulated and enacted by the Union Ministry of Environment and Forest as empowered under the Environment Protection Act of 1986—the submission of an environmental impact assessment prior to the designing and development of any landfill facility in the country has been made mandatory (Government of India, Management & Handling Rules, 2000). Any municipal authority or designated agency engaged in the management of municipal solid waste anywhere in the country must perform an environmental impact assessment of the proposed site for a sanitary landfill operation. Landfill projects must comply with the standards for air, water (ground and surface), pollution, and other environmental norms. Municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) receive household waste. MSWLFs can also receive non-hazardous sludge, industrial solid waste, and construction and demolition debris. All MSWLFs must comply with MSW-Mgt & Handling Rules, 2000 which are as follows:

• Location restrictions—ensure that landfills are built in suitable geological areas away from faults, wetlands, flood plains, or other restricted areas.

• Composite liners requirements—include a flexible membrane (geomembrane) overlaying two feet of compacted clay soil lining the bottom and sides of the landfill; protect groundwater and the underlying soil from leachate releases.

• Leachate collection and removal systems—sit on top of the composite liner and removes leachate from the landfill for treatment and disposal.

• Operating practices—include compacting and covering waste frequently with several inches of soil help reduce odor; control litter, insects, and rodents; and protect public health.

• Groundwater monitoring requirements—requires testing groundwater wells to determine whether waste materials have escaped from the landfill.
Closure and post closure care requirements—include covering landfills and providing long-term care of closed landfills.

• Corrective action provisions—control and clean up landfill releases and achieve groundwater protection standards.

• Financial assurance—provides funding for environmental protection during and after landfill closure (i.e., closure and post closure care).

Some materials may be banned from disposal in municipal solid waste landfills including common household items such as paints, cleaners/chemicals, motor oil, batteries, and pesticides. Leftover portions of these products are called household hazardous waste. These products, if mishandled, can be dangerous to your health and the environment. Many municipal landfills have a household hazardous waste drop-off station for these materials.
Legislative aspect of Waste Management

Govt. of India has promulgated Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules,2000 giving guideline for collections ,transportation and disposal of Municipal solid waste. Compliance to these Rules is Mandatory for all Municipal bodies. Provisions of Municipal solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 stipulate collection of household garbage, segregation, transportation etc.

Interventions required

Community awareness among Citizens

Community awareness with respect to solid waste related issues is mandatory & has been a key pre-requisite for successful implementation of any MSW programme. In Suryapet, which is first municipality to receive ISO 14001:2004 certification & first bin less city of India, community meetings not only focussed upon the benefits of source segregation and on-site composting, but were consciously designed to impart other important messages such as the right age of marriage, compulsory education, importance of adult education, and reasons for the spread of communicable diseases, implementation of family planning, antenatal doses for pregnant women, problems related to child labour, among others. All these messages were situation-specific, depending on the physical condition and living standards of the locality. The main message that was delivered across the town was that if each and every person maintains cleanliness, communicable diseases will reduce and therefore monthly expenditure on health will decrease, leading to savings and reduction of poverty.
Awareness programmes were designed and conducted amongst the residents, school children, college going youth, shop owners, fish and vegetable market associations, hawkers and pavement dwellers.

Garbage Segregation
Garbage segregation into organic & inorganic has been made mandatory as per MSW-mgt & handling rules by Hon’ble Supreme court of India. This has not been achieved in full as per till date in India, except for Suryapet, where total segregation of garbage is achieved with full operational control. Segregation of garbage saves landfill operation cost and prompts resource recycling via recovery of usable waste materials.

Zero Waste Concepts
This concept calls for total recycling of garbage generated in a defined space or community. In Delhi, IIT & JNU has started their total recycling of garbage by engaging NGO like VATAVARAN. Approach adopted is to collect total garbage segregated, divide it into organic & recyclables portion. Organic garbage is composted in pits, while recyclables are sold to scrappers. These are among pioneer institutions, which have introduced concept of zero garbage. This idea can be implemented in schools, institutions and small defined localities, where decentralized waste management takes place.

Polluter pay-principle Implementation
Polluter pay principle should be implemented for control of indiscriminate spillage of solid waste. Suitable legislative amendments should be enacted upon by government institutions for inculcating sanitary habits among citizens. Strict implementation of these measures shall produce results with short span of time, as India is concerned. Legislative implementation should include awareness campaigning regarding ill effects of doing garbage spillages and associated ill affects.

Public private parternership implementation
Privatization in particular is considered a viable option, however privatization proposals are in many cases hurried, ill thought out, and often based on developed country models, which assume a totally different technical, financial and organizational framework, particularly as regards primary collection. The fact that solutions developed for the North are often not appropriate to contexts in the South is nowhere more truely than in the case of primary collection. Moreover, social relations characterizing primary waste collection in South Asian cities have certain particularities and the potential social impacts of changes resulting from privatization need to be carefully considered - this is seldom done.

User charge recovery
In present time, comforts & services are provided with a cost associated to it. In case of solid waste, universal impression of citizens is that, this is moral duty of government to clean and not a moral duty of citizens to keep clean. With increasing operation cost & shrinking financial support for conservancy services, it has become difficult for government institutions to sustain. This can be only made live by leving some user charges for conservancy services provided to citizens. These are also advocated by World Bank & other international monetary agencies, which are now being pushed up by central government under Jawaharlal Nehru Urban Renewal Mission (JNURM) programme.

Centralization of SWM department
Conventionally, municipal solid waste department is an associated activity of public health engineering department, which is mostly concentrated with providing water & sanitation services to citizens. With increasing amount of MSW generation & situation getting out of control, it has been advocated to set up a separate department of municipal solid waste, as we have in JUSCO
This shall give more flexibility & independence to all departments in terms of operation management, with separate dedicated budget expenditures, supported by realization of user charges. This has also been supported by Hon’ble Supreme court of India, and mentioned in MSW manual, published by Central Environmental Engineering & Public Health Organization (CEEPHO), Union Ministry of Urban Development, Govt. of India.

Full Cost accounting of MSW system
Financial constraints are one of the main barriers for proper MSW management. Full cost accounting (FCA) provides decision-makers with a method of compiling detailed cost information on MSW services in their communities. Knowing what MSW management really costs enables local government officials to make informed decisions about their programs, identify opportunities for streamlining services, and facilitate cost-saving efforts, and better plan for the future. This primer briefly explains what FCA is and how it works, along with its benefits and potential barriers. It also provides snapshot examples of how communities across the country are using FCA to improve their MSW operations. FCA is an accounting practice that can help local governments identify and manage the actual costs of MSW services. FCA is different from other common government accounting practices. It helps decision-makers understand the direct and indirect operating costs of MSW services, as well as upfront (past) and backend (future) expenses. Through FCA, decision-makers systematically identify, analyze, and report all the monetary costs of resources associated with MSW management activities. Many local governments’ use cash flow accounting, which is based on cash outlays (when the cash flows), not on costs (when the resource is used). These costs can be obscured using cash flow accounting because communities can incur significant expenditures before and after the operating life of specific management services. For example, in cash flow accounting systems, capital expenditures for garbage trucks and recycling equipment are recognized entirely in the year of purchase, while FCA spreads the expenditures over the useful life of the item. Also, cash flow accounting does not consider future costs that are directly related to current activities, such as landfill closure and post closure. For all these reasons, cash flow accounting can give a distorted picture of the actual costs of MSW management.

FCA is a method of accounting for all monetary costs of resources used or committed, thereby providing managers with the "whole picture" of MSW management costs on an ongoing basis. It goes beyond the limits of cash flow accounting, but does not negate cash flow principles

Conclusion
Urban India generates well over 40 million tonnes of waste every year, but it has yet to develop a comprehensive safe disposal and recycling system for small, medium and large towns. Mounting garbage dumps situated in low-lying areas and the outskirts of towns pose serious health and environmental risks. Developing a waste management culture is important. The end result of waste management has to be translated to economical gains and judicious distribution of the gain among all Perhaps we need to be reminded of what Gandhiji said: "For India, sanitation is more important than independence

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful