Roots of Scientific Revolution
The eighteenth century is often referred to as the Enlightenment. The ideas of many individuals combined to create a movement that would not only sweep across Europe, but reach as far as the America's. The main three roots that contributed to the Scientific Revolution are the following: The Muslim Scholars, The Renaissance and The Jewish and Christian Scholars .The idea of a world without caste, class or institutionalized crudity was what many were striving to achieve. Coinciding with the Enlightenment was the Scientific Revolution. Advancements in astronomy, technology, medicine and mathematics were but a few of the areas of remarkable discovery. The conclusions and observations brought forward by the Scientific Revolution in the eighteenth century have survived and thrived through to modern times. The Scientific Revolution is a period of time from the mid-16th century to the late 18th century in which rationalism and scientific progress made astounding leaps forward. The way man saw the heavens, understood the world around him, and healed his own body dramatically changed. So did the way he understood God and the Church. The result was a revolution in both the sense of causing an upheaval of ideas and consisting of not just one, but also many scientific advancements.
There are many facets in the ideas of the Enlightenment. "What we call the Enlightenment gradually took shape in individual minds, over several generations, before it became conscious of itself as a movement during the late 1740's." "It was primarily a French movement because French culture dominated Europe and because their ideas were expressed in the environment of the Parisian salon." It has been said that the Enlightenment was "a group of writer, working self-consciously for over a hundred years, sought to enlighten men, using critical reason to free minds from prejudices and unexamined authority." "Among these writers and thinkers, there were many who have been given the name of philosophe". The most influential were Frenchman: men like Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, d'Alembert and Condillac. "The philosophes had no common programmed, or manifesto. The nearest they had to one was the Encyclopedia, which Diderot and d'Alembert published, in seventeen volumes, between 1751 and 1772, and to which many of the leading philosophes contributed."
The men of the Enlightenment were driven to achieve. "Overwhelmingly the greatest single emotional drive behind the Enlightenment was that toward making men happy in the here and now In its wider context, the Enlightenment reached into almost every brand of knowledge: into philosophy, the natural world, physical and social sciences, and into their application in technology, education, penology, government and international law. All of this was done in an atmosphere of religious, political a nd economic controversy. "The philosophes were more often than not at odds among themselves on the answers they proposed to various questions or problems. Their solidarity lay in their awareness of a common foe the status quo, and those who supported it, particularly Christianity and the Church." "The central theme of the Enlightenment is the effort to humanize religion."
The major opposition to the ideas of Enlightenment came from the Roman Catholic Church. "If rulers were often sympathetic, the churches generally were not." The religious minorities were often no more sympathetic. "The exception were the Protestant churches in the north of Germany." In Spain where Catholicism was widely practiced, "one leading cleric could refer to the ideas of the Enlightenment as a vile prostitute misnamed philosophy' and another could refuse to learn French because of all the dangerous books written in the language." French thinkers of the Enlightenment projected an attitude that was "critical and skeptical attitude toward religion." "By the later 1770's and 1780's, traditional...
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