CFE 3292V OPEN CAPTIONED PBS VIDEO 1994 Grade Levels: 9-13+ 57 minutes 1 Instructional Graphic Enclosed
Author David Macaulay reveals the master plan for building Roman cities by analyzing ancient ruins in France and in Italy. Roman cities were built around a forum, or center, which contained temples, markets, amphitheaters, and government buildings. These were surrounded by walls and cleverly built aqueducts which supplied water to city reservoirs. An animated segment describes how the Romans treated the Gauls after their conquest.
• To examine the ancient Roman city and its influence on later cities. • To depict a fictional story of the relationship between the conquerors and the conquered in the Roman Empire. • To tell the story of the construction of a fictional Roman city in the newly conquered territory of Gaul. • To show many sites of settlements throughout the former Roman Empire. • To examine the architecture, city planning, technology, and culture of the Roman Empire.
1. Preview the video to determine unfamiliar vocabulary and language concepts. 2. Make a time line of early civilizations, including the Roman Empire. 3. Locate Rome and the Roman Empire on an historical map. 4. Generate a list of vocabulary and concepts associated with the Roman Empire. 5. Distribute the worksheet PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE for 1
completion during and after the second viewing. (See INSTRUCTIONAL GRAPHICS.)
1. View the video more than once, with one showing uninterrupted. 2. Pause during the animated segments to clarify the identities and relationships of the people in Verbonia. 3. Pause when maps of the Roman Empire and graphics of city building are presented to allow adequate viewing time and clarification.
Discussion Items and Questions 1. How did cities help to maintain the Roman Empire? 2. Discuss ways in which the Roman city met and shaped people’s needs. 3. Describe how some of the Romans’ ideas for cities are still being used today. 4. How did Roman city builders address the problems of supplying and rationing water? 5. Discuss possible reasons for the popularity of the depraved entertainment at the Roman amphitheaters. 6. Contrast the lives of wealthy citizens and slaves in the Roman Empire. Applications and Activities 1. Practice new vocabulary using all appropriate modes of communication. 2. Complete the worksheet PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. (See INSTRUCTIONAL GRAPHICS.) 3. Report on the construction and significance of the arch in architecture. 4. Research Roman religion and identify the major gods and goddesses. 5. Build a model of a Roman city. 2
6. Read David Macaulay’s book City: A Story of Roman Planning and Construction. 7. Research a famous site mentioned in the video. Consider: Pompeii, Herculaneum, Ostia, Palatine Hill. 8. Research and report on special features of the art of ancient Rome.
1. After researching the legend of Romulus and Remus, tell it in American Sign Language. 2. Invite a language teacher to discuss the influence of Latin, the language of the Romans, on the English language.
One instructional graphic is included with this lesson guide. It may be enlarged and used to create transparencies or copies. • PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
The cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum were covered by volcanic ash and mud. These cities lay buried for over 1600 years before their excavation revealed a picture of everyday life of civilization in the Roman Empire. The remains of the Roman Empire may be found on three continents. The Romans built cities in the lands they conquered in order to spread their civilization. Many modern cities have their roots in ancient Roman cities, in the way great public buildings and theaters are built, in the way that streets are laid out, even in the ways water is supplied. To the Romans, the city was the center of culture. Legend says that Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus, two princes who were cast out but saved and nurtured by a wolf. 3
By the time of Jesus, Rome controlled much of Europe and the Mediterranean. In 300 A.D., Rome’s population was over one million. A Roman city started with a grid layout, with major buildings in the center and the whole area surrounded by walls. There were aqueducts to supply water, temples, markets, theaters and amphitheaters, public baths, and playing fields. The province of Gaul, now France, was brought under Roman control by Julius Caesar. Many of the Celtic people of Gaul, particularly the Druids, were not happy to be ruled by Rome. The fictional city of Verbonia exemplifies a conquered Gallic settlement. One can still see aqueduct ruins in France. Aqueducts rested on a series of arches and used gravity to bring water from mountains to cities. Water was stored in reservoirs before being funneled to the homes of the rich, to the public baths, and to the public fountains. Verbonia has reservoirs made of concrete. The gluttonous Roman official taxes the Gauls cruelly. Excavations at Pompeii revealed wealthy citizens’ homes with their gardens, atriums, and pools. Wealthy lifestyles were supported by slave labor. Ostia, unlike Pompeii, was a working-class town. Continued taxation leads the tax collector’s countrymen to report him to Caesar Augustus, who recalls him to Rome to become a food taster. Even so, Celts continue to revolt at Verbonia and are harshly punished by the Romans. The Romans loved the depraved entertainment at amphitheaters such as the Colosseum, where gladiators fought, prisoners were executed, and defeated enemies were killed publicly. The architect of Verbonia asks Caesar Augustus to pardon the chieftain who has been punished after Celtic uprisings. Caesar grants his wish. Later, the chieftain’s daughter halts an assassination attempt and 4
she and her father are rewarded with Roman citizenship. During the Roman Empire, many conquered peoples became assimilated and gained status. The Roman city was a crucible of thought and change, as well as being livable and thoughtfully designed. The designers tried to limit cities’ sizes. Though much of the Romans’ vision of life was brutal and repulsive, part of it was brilliantly progressive. Roman technology and city planning were unparalleled in the ancient Western world.
CFE 3292 V
PEOPLE, PLACES, AND THINGS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
People/Gods Julius Caesar Romulus and Remus Jupiter and Juno Slaves G ladiators Druids
Places Amphitheater Atrium Forum Gaul Pompeii and Herculaneum Ostia Rome Palatine Hill Colosseum
Things Keystone Aqueduct Colonnade
DIRECTIONS: Write the correct answer by the definition: People/Gods 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Roman gods Most famous Roman Lowest class of Roman society Men trained to fight to the death for public entertainment Legendary founders of Rome Priests of an ancient Celtic religion
Places 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Towns buried by volcanic ash and mud A commercial city and seaport of the Roman Empire Territory now known as France Open area around which a house is built Central public place of an ancient Roman city An oval building with tiered seats around an open space, used for contests or games in ancient Rome 7. Center of Roman Empire 8. Site of emperor’s home in Rome 9. Famous amphitheater in Rome Things 1. A row of columns supporting a horizontal beam or a roof 2. A pipeline built to carry water 3. W edge-shaped piece at the crown of an arch that holds the other pieces in place