The key to the Mongolian success lied in their excellent horsemanship, their use of the composite bow, their unimaginable discipline and communication on the battlefield and also their ability to adapt to enemy tactics.
The Mongolian invasion of China often makes it sound as though these nomadic people did not have much of a battle plan, however it is the exact opposite according to (Conant, 1994)
“Genghis Khan was a very cautious man, and would study the towns and cities extensively through the use of spies before committing to an attack”.
His army was so well disciplined and employed communication techniques on the battlefield that it is said that the army well over 100,000 men at the end of his campaign could perform complicated battlefield maneuvers in battle very easily. These maneuvers could be likened to the closing of a hand, that some would retreat, flank, and the attack again, all of this in the middle of a battle. Another thing that helped win the day was the use of the composite bow, a bow almost half the size of the English Longbow that could be employed from horseback with deadly precision.
Romans had to move army's from location to location quickly.
They build roads that could be traveled on quickly and equipment along with them.
When on large battle fields they had to be able to communicate. This was done with the invention of codes and signals.
Armor was another advancement that was made by the Romans.
The Mongols were very effective due to their mobility. They had light armor and well trained with bow and arrows. They would use advanced military tactics to take down armies larger than their own and they had made strides in mobility. The army was given dried ground meat to make stew or soup for food. And they had advanced weapons. The Roman continent spanned only to Europe due to its beginning in Italy and its conquering of many parts of Europe. An important part of the geography of Rome was
References: Ancient Rome Geography. Retrieved Aug. 19, 2012, from http://www.mariamilani.com/rome_maps/ancient_rome_geography.htm. Ancient Roman Government. Retrieved Aug. 19, 2012, from http://www.mariamilani.com/ancient_rome/Ancient_Roman_Government.htm. What When and How (2012). DIVIDE AND RULE: THE LEGACY OF ROMAN IMPERIALISM (Western Colonialism), from: http://what-when-how.com/western-colonialism/divide-and-rule-the-legacy-of-roman-imperialism-western-colonialism/ Mongolia (2012). Culture of Mongolia: Graphical Arts. From: http://www.everyculture.com/Ma-Ni/Mongolia.html