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Roma

By Fuatsr Jan 25, 2009 6830 Words
Roman vs. Greek Civilization

Although both Roman and Greek civilizations shared similarities in the areas of art and literature, their differences were many and prominent. Their contrasting aspects rest mainly upon political systems and engineering progress, but there are also several small discrepancies that distinguish between these two societies. This essay will examine these differences and explain why, ultimately, Rome was the more advanced civilization of the two. Greece, originally ruled by an oligarchy ("rule of the few"), operated under the premise that those selected to rule were selected based not upon birth but instead upon wealth. Eventually, however, Greek government became democratic. Rome, on the other hand, was a republic that elected its officials, and common citizens were not allowed as many opportunities as Athenians to participate in matters of the state. While Greece had branches of government to represent citizens, Rome implemented branches of government to represent different components of society. For example, Rome had authorities to supervise public works projects, administer justice, supervise recreational activities and conduct a census (text). Rome, who, like Greece, was a polytheistic society, also appointed a priest for life who was in charge of the entire state's religion. Another difference in these civilizations is in the architecture of each region. The architecture of the Romans was also more advanced than that of the Greeks; they used concrete and placed emphasis on arches, vaulted ceilings, and domes while Greece emphasized balance and symmetry. Greek temples aimed at impressing by designing intricate, aesthetically pleasing outer views, while Roman architecture's goal was to impress by enclose a vast amount of space. Thirdly, the Romans were far more advanced than Greece in terms of engineering progress. In both the areas of civil and hydraulic engineering, Rome towered above Greece. They constructed a network of durable, paved highways and city streets; in fact, most everything had concrete walls and pavement. They developed a water supply and storage system as well as a waste disposal scheme, using aqueducts when local water supplies ran low. Furthermore, they implemented food preparation, storage, and distribution centers in addition to their dependable water supply system. Rome's technological advances, as described above, place it above any civilization of its time. Based on these examples, Roman civilization was by far more highly developed than Greek civilization. The Roman Empire

Greek culture laid the foundation for the Roman Empire. The Roman people wanted to be like the Greek people. For example the Romans made a sculpture of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. The Romans recognized the Greek art and architecture to be very well done. Since the Romans likes these traits of the Greek they used the Greeks ideas and created there own. That was the basis of the Roman Empire.

In 64 AD there was a fire in Rome that burned down a large part of the city. When Rome decided to reconstruct they built the city back up in Greek style. They used the Greek architecture, and made it into their own. In 385 AD the Roman Empire fell into the West-Roman Empire and the East-Roman Empire. The two Empires existed until 476 AD when the Western Empire was invaded by the Goths.

The Romans used the Greek architecture style, and created their own architecture style. This Roman architecture is well known around the world today. It is seen in many places still as of this time. The Romans created the style of the pillars on the buildings. Architecture is a main part in the development of an Empire.

The Romans took the word basilica from the Greek word basileus which means king. The original word means a royal palace. But the Romans made the meaning into a center of business. But also in the basilica they had administration meetings there. This shows how the Romans based their business from the Greek way.

The Roman forums were very unique from any other countries forums. The forums were unique not only because of its architecture but on how it represents freedom and its a symbol of democracy to the Empire. The Romans had there own gods, but in 500 BC the Romans came in contact with the Greek gods. Not long after did the Romans adopt the god of the Greek. The Greek culture laid the foundation for the Roman Empire. As you can see the Romans adopted and used many of the Greeks, art, religious gods, and architecture. Because of this the Romans based their Empire on how the Greeks based theirs. Rome and the Roman Empire

As the story goes, Rome was founded by a pair of feuding brothers who were allegedly raised by wolves. Romulus and Remus. From that point on, the Roman Empire would play a pivotal role in the development of both Eastern and Western society alike. Its influence can still be noticed. The Empire bought us such inventions as aqueducts, elevators, and innovations like urban planning. This essay will discuss the evolution of the Roman Empire and its impact on the Western World.

As the story goes, Rome was founded in 753 B.C by two brothers by the names of Romulus and Remus. The two feuded over leadership and the end result was Romulus killing Remus and becoming emperor on his own. The city was only a small settlement at this time with almost no women. Romulus decided to invite their neighbours, the Sabines to a harvest festival. After they all had arrived, the Romans abducted 600 of their women at sword point. In this way, the growth of Rome was insured.

The Romans learnt many of their artistic and technological from a group of people known as the Etruscans who lived in the hills of Tuscany. The Etruscans were notably accomplished artists and inventors. They taught the Roman people how to work metal and many other materials. The gladiatorial games, in fact, came from an old “Etruscan rite. The Roman Empire and Its Influence on Western Civilization

Rome's vast empire lasted for an amazing one thousand-year reign. Half of it referred to as the republic, and the other as the empire. However, after its fall in 5oo-a.d. Rome has still remained in existence through its strong culture, architecture, literature, and even religion (Spielvogel 175). Even after its disappearance as a nation Rome left behind a legacy that will never be forgotten. Its ideals and traditions have been immolated, and adopted for over two thousand years. Whether, it is through its language of Latin, its influence of religion, or its amazing architectural ability Rome has influenced almost every culture following its demise. The heritage of Rome has been passed down through three different channels; one is through the eastern Roman Empire; through the Roman Catholic Church, and consciously by any and every one who has been in touch with Roman Culture (Hadas 157).

The first to try to reconstruct Rome was the emperor Constantine. In his capital of Constantinople, Constantine wanted to reconstruct the city to be an exact replication of Rome. In doing so he reconstructed some of the buildings as almost exact duplicates of the originals of early Roman architecture. Or Constantine's drive to reenact Rome's republic, and turn it back to a government ran by the senators for the people. In fact he was quite successful until it was finally demolished The Roman Empire was the post-Republican phase of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean. The term is used to describe the Roman state during and after the time of the first emperor, Augustus. The 500-year-old Roman Republic, which preceded it, had been weakened by several civil wars [5]. Several events are commonly proposed to mark the transition from Republic to Empire, including Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator (44 BC), the victory of Octavian at the Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BC), and the Roman Senate's granting to Octavian the honorific Augustus. (16 January 27 BC) [6]. The Latin term Imperium Romanum (Roman Empire), probably the best-known Latin expression where the word imperium denotes a territory, indicates the part of the world under Roman rule. Roman expansion began in the days of the Republic, but reached its zenith under Emperor Trajan. At this territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled approximately 5,900,000 km² (2,300,000 sq mi) of land surface. Because of the Empire's vast extent and long endurance, Roman influence upon the language, religion, architecture, philosophy, law, and government of nations around the world lasts to this day. In the late 3rd century AD, Diocletian established the practice of dividing authority between two emperors, one in the western part of the empire and one in the east, in order to better administer the vast territory. For the next century this practice continued, with occasional periods in which one emperor assumed complete control. However, after the death of Theodosius in 395, no single emperor would ever again hold genuine supremacy over a united Roman Empire [7]. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476 asRomulus Augustus was forced to abdicate by Odoacer [8]. The Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire endured until 1453 with thecapture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks led by Mehmed II [9]. Therefore, it is difficult to give an exact date when the Roman Empire ceased to exist, but this article will focus on the empire from 27 BC to the permanent division in AD 395. For more information, see History of the Roman Empire. Government Main articles: _Roman Emperor, Roman Senate, Praetorian_ _Guard, Sacramentum, and Donativum_ Emperor The powers of an emperor, (his imperium) existed, in theory at least, by virtue of his "tribunician powers" (_potestas tribunicia_) and his "proconsular powers" (_imperium proconsulare_).[10] In theory, the tribunician powers (which were similar to those of the Plebeian Tribunes under the old republic) made the emperor's person and office sacrosanct, and gave the emperor authority over Rome's civil government, including the power to preside over and to control the Senate.[11] The proconsular powers (similar to those of military governors, or Proconsuls, under the old republic) gave him authority over the Roman army. He was also given powers that, under the republic, had been reserved for the Senate and the assemblies, including the right to declare war, to ratify treaties, and to negotiate with foreign leaders.[12] The emperor also had the authority to carry out a range of duties that had been performed by the censors, including the power to control senate membership.[13] In addition, the emperor controlled the religious institutions, since, as emperor, he was always Pontifex Maximus and a member of each of the four major priesthoods.[12] While these distinctions were clearly defined during the early empire, eventually they were lost, and the emperor's powers became less constitutional and more monarchical.[14] Realistically, the main support of an emperor's power and authority was th military. Being paid by the imperial treasury, the legionaries also swore an annual military oath of loyalty towards him, called the Sacramentum. [15] The death of an emperor led to a crucial period of uncertainty and crisis. In theory the senate was entitled to choose the new emperor, but most emperors choose their own successors, usually a close family member. The new emperor had to seek a swift acknowledgement of his new status and authority in order to stabilize the political landscape. No emperor could hope to survive, much less to reign, without the allegiance and loyalty of the Praetorian Guard loyalty, several emperors paid the Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum While the Roman assemblies continued to meet after the founding of the empire, their powers were all transferred to the (_senatus consulta_) acquired the full force of law. In theory, the emperor and the senate were two co government, but the actual authority largely a vehicle through which the emperor disguised his autocratic powers under a cloak of republicanism. Still prestigious and respected, the Senate was largely a glorified rubber stamp its powers, and was largely at the emperor's mercy. and of the legions. To secure their donativum, a monetary reward. Forum, the seat of the Senate. Roman Senate, and so senatorial ) law.[16] co-equal branches of of the senate was negligible and it was institution which had been stripped of most of the , decrees Many emperors showed a certain degree of respect towards this ancient institution, while others were notorious for ridiculing it. During senate meetings, the emperor sat between the two consuls, [17] and usually acted as the presiding officer. Higher ranking senators spoke before lower ranking senators, although the emperor could speak at any time.[17] By the third century, the senate had been reduced to a glorified municipal body. Senators and Equestrians Main articles: _Equestrian order and Cursus honorum_ No emperor could rule the empire without the Senatorial Order and the Equestrian Order. Most of the more important posts and offices of the government were reserved for the members of these two aristocratic orders. It was from among their ranks that the provincial governors, legion commanders, and similar officials were chosen. These two classes were hereditary and mostly closed to outsiders. Very successful and favoured individuals could enter, but this was a rare occurrence. The careers of the young aristocrats was influenced by their family connections and the favour of patrons. As important as ability, knowledge, skill, or competence; patronage was considered vital for a successful career and the highest posts and offices required the emperor's favour and trust. Senatorial Order The son of a senator was expected to follow the Cursus honorum, a career ladder, and the more prestigious positions were restricted to senators only. A senator also had to be wealthy; one of the basic requirements was the wealth of 12,000 gold Aurei [18], a figure which would later be raised with the passing of centuries. Equestrian Order Below the Senatorial Order was the Equestrian Order. The requirements and posts reserved for this class, while perhaps not so prestigious, were still very important. Some of the more vital posts, like the governorship of Aegyptus, were even forbidden to the members of the Senatorial Order and available only to equestrians. Military The location of the legions in AD 80. _Main articles: _Military of ancient Rome Legions During and after the civil war, Octavian reduced the huge number of the legions (over 60 [19] size (28 [20]). Several legions, particularly those with doubt were simply disbanded. Other legions were amalgamated, a fact suggested by the title Gemina wiped out three full legions in the disastrous event reduced the number of the legions to 25. The total of the legions would later be increased aga always be a little above or below 30 the Praetorian Guard: nine peace which were garrisoned in Italy. Better paid than the legionaries, the Praetorians also serve years of the legionaries, they retired after 16 years of service Auxillia While the Auxillia (Latin: legionaries, they were of maj auxilia were recruited from among the non smaller units of roughly cohort strength, they were paid less than the legionaries, and after 25 years of service were rewarded with citizenship, also extended to their sons. According to were roughly as many auxiliaries as there were legionaries. Since at this time there were 25 legions of around 5,000 men each, the auxilia thus _Rome, Roman army, and Roman Navy_ 19]) to a much more manageable and affordable ). doubtful loyalties, (Twin [21]). In AD 9 Germanic tribes Battle of the Teutoburg Forest again and for the next 300 years [22]. Augustus also created : cohorts ostensibly to maintain the public served less time; instead of serving the standard 25 [23] auxilia = supports) are not as famous as the major importance. Unlike the legionaries, the non-citizens. Organized in Roman , Tacitus [24] ) ful ). Forest. This in . d 23]. or there amounted to around 125,000 men, implying approximately 250 auxiliary regiments [25]. Navy The Roman Navy (Latin: Classis, lit. "fleet") not only aided in the supply and transport of the legions, but also helped in the protection of the frontiers in the rivers Rhine and Danube. Another of its duties was the protection of the very important maritime trade routes against the threat of pirates. Therefore it patrolled the whole of the Mediterranean Sea, parts of the North Atlantic(coasts of Hispania, Gaul, and Britannia), and had also a naval presence in the Black Sea. Nevertheless the army was considered the senior and more prestigious branch [26]. Provinces _Main articles: Roman province, Senatorial province, Imperial province,_ _and _Grain supply to the city of Rome In the old days of the Republic the governorships of the provinces were traditionally [27] awarded to members of the Senatorial Order. Augustus' reforms changed this policy. Imperial provinces Augustus created [28] the Imperial provinces. Most, but not all, of the Imperial provinces were relatively recent conquests and located at the borders. Thereby the overwhelming majority of legions, which were stationed at the frontiers, were under direct Imperial control. Very important was the Imperial province of Aegyptus (modern Egypt), the major breadbasket of the empire. Its grain supply was vital to feed the masses in Rome. It was considered the personal fiefdom of the emperor, and Senators were forbidden to even visit this province. The governor of Aegyptus and the commanders of any legion stationed there were not from the Senatorial Order, but were chosen by the emperor from among the members of the lower Equestrian Order. Senatorial provinces The old traditional policy continued largely unchanged in the Senatorial provinces. Due to their location, away from the borders, and to the fact that they were under longer Roman sovereignty and control, these provinces were largely peaceful and stable. Only a single legion was based in a Senatorial province: Legio III Augusta, stationed in the Senatorial province ofAfrica (modern northern Algeria). The status of a province was subject to change; it could change from Senatorial towards Imperial, or vice-versa. This happened several times [27] during Augustus' reign. Another trend was to create new provinces, mostly by dividing older ones, or by expanding the empire. Religion _Main articles: Religion in ancient Rome, Imperial cult (ancient Rome),_ _and _Persecution of religion in ancient Rome As the empire expanded, and came to include people from a variety of cultures, the worship of an ever increasing number of deities was tolerated and accepted. The imperial government, and the Romans in general, tended to be very tolerant towards most religions and cults. However a select few religions were not widely accepted, and on occasion even persecuted. Imperial cult In an effort to enhance loyalty, the inhabitants of the empire were called to participate in the Imperial cult and revere the emperors and certain members of the imperial family as gods. The importance of the Imperial cult slowly grew, reaching its peak during the Crisis of the Third Century. Especially in the eastern half of the empire imperial cults grew very popular, and the cult complex became one of the focal points of life in the Roman cities. As such it was one of the major agents of romanization. The central elements of the cult complex were next to a temple; a theatre or amphitheatre for gladiator displays and other games and a public bath complex. Sometimes the imperial cult was added to the cults of an existing temple or celebrated in a special hall in the bath complex. The seriousness of this belief is unclear. Some Romans ridiculed the notion that a Roman emperor was to be considered a living god, or would even make fun of the deification of an emperor after his death. Seneca the Younger parodied the notion of apotheosis in his only known satire The Pumpkinification of Claudius, in which the clumsy and illspoken Claudius is not transformed into a god, but into a pumpkin. In fact, bitter sarcasm was already effected at Claudius' funeral in 54 [29]. Absorption of foreign cults Several foreign gods and cults grew popular, and the worship of Cybele, Isis, Mithras, and Sol Invictus became quite important. Several of these were popular Mystery cults. Persecuted religions Druids Druids were seen as essentially non-Roman: a prescript of Augustus forbade Roman citizens to practice "druidical" rites. Pliny reports [30] that under Tiberius the druids were suppressed—along with diviners and physicians—by a decree of the Senate, and Claudius forbade their rites completely in AD 54 [31]. Judaism While Judaism was largely tolerated, it was on occasion subject to (mostly) local persecution. Tiberius [32] forbade Judaism in Rome, and Claudius expelled Jews from the city. However the passage of Suetonius is ambiguous: "Because the Jews at Rome caused continuous disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus he [Claudius] expelled them from the city" [31]. Chrestus has been identified as another form of Christus; the disturbances may have been related to the arrival of the first Christians, and that the Roman authorities, failing to distinguish between the Jews and the early Christians, simply decided to expel them all. Christianity Christianity, a Jewish religious sect, emerged in Judea in the first century AD and then began to spread establishing major bases in first Antioch, then Alexandria. Over time the new religion would spread throughout the empire and it was initially largely left in peace. Suetonius mentions passingly that: "[during Nero's reign] Punishments were also inflicted on the Christians, a sect professing a new and mischievous religious belief" [33] but he doesn't explain for what they were punished. Tacitus reports that after the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64 some in the population held Nero responsible [34] and that to diffuse blame, he targeted and blamed the Christians [34]. Persecution of Christians would be a recurring theme in the Empire for the next two centuries. Eusebius and Lactantius document the last great persecution of the Christians underDiocletian at the beginning of the 4th century at the urging of Galerius. This was the most vicious persecution of Christians in the Empire's history. As the 4th century progressed, Christianity had become so widespread that it became officially tolerated, then promoted (Constantine I), then established as the Empire's official religion (Theodosius I). By the 5th century Christianity had become the Empire's predominant religion rapidly changing the Empire's identity even as the Western provinces collapsed.[35] This would lead to the persecution of the traditional polytheistic religions that had previously characterized most of the Empire. Languages Main articles: _Latin, Classical Latin, Vulgar Latin, Greek_ _language, Koine Greek, and Attic Greek_ The language of Rome before its expansion was Latin, and this became the Empire's official language. By the time of the imperial period Latin began evolving into into two languages: the 'high' written Classical Latin and the 'low' spoken Vulgar Latin. While Classical Latin remained relatively stable, even through the Middle Ages, Vulgar Latin as with any spoken language was fluid and evolving. Vulgar Latin became the lingua franca in the western provinces later evolving into the modern Romance languages: Italian, French, Portuguese, Spanish, Romanian, etc. Greek and Classical Latin were considered the languages of literature, scholarship, and education. Although Latin remained the official and most widely spoken language through to the fall of Rome and for some centuries after in the East, the Greek language was the lingua franca in the eastern provinces.[36] With the exception of Carthage, the Romans generally did not attempt to supplant local cultures and languages. It is to their credit that they generally left established customs in place and only gradually supplemented with the typical Roman-style improvements.[37] Greek was already widely spoken in many cities in the east, and as such, the Romans were quite content to retain it as an administrative language there rather than impede bureaucratic efficiency. Hence, two official secretaries served in the Roman Imperial court, one charged with correspondence in Latin and the other with correspondence in Greek for the East.[38] It is interesting to note that in the eastern provinces public notices were typically posted in three languages; Latin, Greek, and the local tongue.[_citation needed_] Moreover, the process of hellenisation continued more extensively, well beyond city boundaries, during the Roman period, for the Romans perpetuated "Greek" culture,[39][40][41] but with all the trappings of Roman improvements.[42][43] This further spreading of Hellenistic culture was largely due to the extensive infrastructure (in the form of entertainment, health, and education amenities, and extensive transportation networks, etc.) put in place by the Romans and their tolerance, and inclusion, of other cultures, a characteristic which set them apart from the xenophobic nature of the Greeks preceding them.[44] During the 7th century AD Greek became the most widely spoken language in the Empire due to the contraction of the imperial borders to the eastern regions where the Greek languagewas most dominant; the administrative language was actually changed to Greek during the reign of Heraclius (610- 641AD).[45] Since the Roman annexation of Greece in 146BC the Greek language gradually obtained a unique place in the Roman world, owing initially to the large number of Greeks slaves in Roman households.[46] In Rome itself Greek became the second language of the educated elite.[47] Greek became the common language in early the Church (as its major centers in the early Christian period were in the East), and the language of scholarship and the arts. However, due to the presence of other widely spoken languages in the densely populated east, such as Coptic, Syriac, Armenian, Aramaic and Phoenician (which was also extensively spoken in North Africa), Greek never became as imbedded as Latin eventually did in the west. This is directly evident in the extent to which the derivative languages are spoken today. Like Latin, the language gained a dual nature with the literary language, an Attic Greek variant, existing alongside spoken language, Koine Greek, which evolved into Medievalor Byzantine Greek (Romaic).[48] By the 4th century AD Greek no longer held such dominance over Latin in the Church, Arts and Sciences as it had previously, resulting to a great extent from the growth of the western provinces (reflected in the publication in the early 5th century AD of the Vulgate Bible, the first officially accepted Latin Bible; before this only Greek translations were accepted). As the Western Empire declined, the number of people who spoke both Greek and Latin declined as well, contributing greatly to the future East– West / Orthodox–Catholic cultural divide in Europe. Important as both languages were, today the descendants of Latin are widely spoken in many parts of the world, while the Greek dialects are limited mostly to Greece, Cyprus, and small enclaves in Turkey and southern Italy. To some degree this can be attributed to the fact that the western provinces fell mainly to "Latinised", Christian to Muslim Arabs and Turks for whom Greek held less cu Culture Roman clad in a toga _Main articles: _Culture of ancient Rome Life in the Roman Empire revolved around the famed seven hills. The city also had several and manytaverns, baths Rome's control, residential modest houses to country villas the residences on the elegant "_palace_" is derived. The vast majority of the population lived in the city centre, packed into apartmen Most Roman towns and cities had a of Rome itself. Aqueducts centres[50] and wineand generally resided in cities and their estates were left in the care of farm managers. To stimulate a higher labour productiv freed a large numbers of slaves. By the time of Augustus, cultured Greek household slaves taught the Roman young (sometimes even the girls). Greek sculptures adorned Hellenistic landscape gardening on the Palatine or in the villas tribes, whereas the eastern provinces fell cultural significance. _and _Social class in ancient Rome city of Rome, and its theatres.[49] gymnasiums and brothels. Throughout the territory under architecture ranged from very villas, and in the capital city of Rome, to Palatine Hill, from which the word " apartment blocks. forum and temples, as did the city were built to bring water to urban and oil were imported from abroad. Landlords productivity, many landlords villas. ltural , gymnasiums, , ity, Many aspects of Roman culture were taken from the Greeks.[51] In architecture and sculpture, the difference between Greek models and Roman paintings are apparent. The chief Roman contributions to architecture were the arch and the dome. The centre of the early social structure was the family,[52] which was not only marked by blood relations but also by the legally constructed relation of patria potestas.[53] The Pater familias was the absolute head of the family; he was the master over his wife, his children, the wives of his sons, the nephews, the slaves and the freedmen, disposing of them and of their goods at will, even putting them to death.[54] Roman law recognized only patrician families as legal entities. Slavery and slaves were part of the social order; there were slave markets where they could be bought and sold. Many slaves were freed by the masters for services rendered; some slaves could save money to buy their freedom. Generally mutilation and murder of slaves was prohibited by legislation. It is estimated that over 25% of the Roman population was enslaved.[55][56] The city of Rome had a place called the Campus Martius ("Field of Mars"), which was a sort of drill ground for Roman soldiers. Later, the Campus became Rome’s track and field playground. In the campus, the youth assembled to play and exercise, which included jumping, wrestling, boxing and racing. Riding, throwing, andswimming were also preferred physical activities. In the countryside, pastime also included fishing and hunting. Board games played in Rome included Dice (Tesserae or Tali), Roman Chess (Latrunculi), Roman Checkers (Calculi), Tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli), and Ludus duodecim scriptorum and Tabula, predecessors of backgammon.[57] There were several other activities to keep people engaged like chariot races, musical and theatrical performances, Clothing, dining, and the arts _Main articles: Roman cuisine, Latin literature, Roman art, Roman music,_ _and _Roman architecture The cloth and the dress distinguished one class of people from the other class. The tunic worn by plebeians (common people) like shepherds and slaves was made from coarse and dark material, whereas the tunic worn by patricians was of linen or white wool.[58] A magistrate would wear the tunic augusticlavi; senators wore a tunic with broad stripes, called tunica laticlavi. Military tunics were shorter than the ones worn by civilians. Boys, up until the festival of Liberalia, wore the toga praetexta, which was a toga with a crimson or purple border. The toga virilis, (or toga pura) was worn by men over the age of 16 to signify their citizenship in Rome. The toga picta was worn by triumphant generals and had embroidery of their skill on the battlefield. The toga pulla was worn when in mourning. Even footwear indicated a person’s social status. Patricians wore red and orange sandals, senators had brown footwear, consuls had white shoes, and soldiers wore heavy boots. Men typically wore a toga, and women a stola. The woman's stola looked different than a toga, and was usually brightly coloured. The Romans also invented socks for those soldiers required to fight on the northern frontiers, sometimes worn in sandals.[59] Romans had simple food habits. Staple food was simple, generally consumed at around 11 o’clock, and consisted of bread, salad, cheese, fruits, nuts, and cold meat left over from the dinner the night before. The Roman poet, Horace mentions another Roman favourite, the olive, in reference to his own diet, which he describes as very simple: "As for me, olives, endives, and smooth mallows provide sustenance."[60] The family ate together, sitting on stools around a table. Fingers were used to eat solid foods and spoons were used for soups. Wine was considered a staple drink,[61] consumed at all meals and occasions by all classes and was quite cheap. Many types of drinks involving grapes and honey were consumed as well. Drinking on an empty stomach was regarded as boorish and a sure sign for alcoholism, whose debilitating physical and psychological effects were known to the Romans. An accurate accusation of being an alcoholic was an effective way to discredit political rivals. Roman literature was from its very inception influenced heavily by Greek authors. Some of the earliest works we possess are of historical epics telling the early military history of Rome. As the empire expanded, authors began to produce poetry, comedy, history, and tragedy. Virgil represents the pinnacle of Roman epic poetry. His Aeneid tells the story of flight of Aeneas fromTroy and his settlement of the city that would become Rome. Lucretius, in his On the Nature of Things, attempted to explicate science in an epic poem. The genre of satire was common in Rome, and satires were written by, among others, Juvenal[62] and Persius. Many Roman homes were decorated with landscapes by Greek artists. Portrait sculpture[63] during the period utilized youthful and classical proportions, evolving later into a mixture of realism and idealism. Advancements were also made in relief sculptures, often depic victories. Detail of a mosaic found in Pompeii. The figure on the left is playing the double aulos, double-reed pipes; the figure in the middle, small, bronze cymbals; and on the right, the like drum. Music was a major part of everyday life. The word itself derives public events were accompanied by music, ranging from nightly dining to military parades and manoeuvres. In a discussion of any ancient music, however, non-specialists and even many musicians have to be reminded that much of what makes our modern music familiar to us is the result of developments only within the last 1,000 years; thus, our ideas of melody, scales, harmony, and even the instruments we use would not be fam Romans who made and listened to music many centuries earlier. Over time, Roman architecture was modified as their urban requirements changed, and the civil engineering and building construction refined. The Roman concrete than 2,000 years some Roman structures still stand magnificently. architectural style of the capital city was emulated by other urban centres under Roman control and influence. Education _Main article: _Roman school Following various military conquests in the adapted a number of Greek educational precepts to their own fledgling system.[66]Home was often the learning centre, where children were taught Roman law, customs depicting Roman cymbalum tympanum, a tambourine mousike), "(art) of the Muses".[64] Many private and technologybecame developed and has remained a riddle, and even after more magnificently.[65] Greek East, Romans customs, and physical training to prepare the boys to ting cymbalum, , tambourine- familiar to e [The , , grow as Roman citizens and for eventual recruitment into the army. Conforming to discipline was a point of great emphasis. Girls generally received instruction[67] from their mothers in the art of spinning, weaving ,and sewing. Education began at the age of around six, and in the next six to seven years, boys and girls were expected to learn the basics of reading, writing and counting. By the age of twelve, they would be learning Latin, Greek, grammar and literature, followed by training for public speaking. Oratory was an art to be practised and learnt, and good orators commanded respect. To become an effective orator was one of the objectives of education and learning. In some cases, services of gifted slaves were utilized for imparting education.[67] Economy Main articles: _Roman currency and Roman provincial coins_ The imperial government was, as all governments, interested in the issue and control of the currency in circulation. To mint coins was a political act: the image of the ruling emperor appeared on most issues, and coins were a means of showing his image throughout the empire. Also featured were predecessors, empresses, other family members, and heirs apparent. By issuing coins with the image of an heir his legitimacy and future succession was proclaimed and reinforced. Political messages and imperial propaganda such as proclamations of victory and acknowledgements of loyalty also appeared in certain issues. Legally only the emperor and the Senate had the authority to mint coins inside the empire [68]. However the authority of the Senate was mainly in name only. In general, the imperial government issued gold and silver coins while the Senate issued bronze coins marked by the legend "SC", short for Senatus Consulto "by decree of the Senate". However, bronze coinage could be struck without this legend. Some Greek cities were allowed to mint [69] bronze and certain silver coins, which today are known as Greek _Imperials (also Roman Colonials orRoman Provincials_). The imperial mints were under the control of a chief financial minister, and the provincial mints were under the control of the imperial provincial procurators. The Senatorial mints were governed by officials of the Senatorial treasury. The Roman Empire At Its Height {draw:rect} geography Most of the population of the Roman empire lived within easy reach of the Mediterranean, and the imperial government promoted and protected sea-trade and naval communications between the various parts of the empire. Land communications were made easier by the constructions of an extensive system of roads and bridges Government Absolute rule embodied in an emperor who, in the state-sponsored emperor cult was considered to be a god Trained bureaucracy

Well-developed written laws
Uniform system of local government based upon the civitas (municipality and surrounding countryside). Military The large standing army was concentrated on the frontier and defended the interior of the empire against foreign invasions. When not fighting, the army built roads, bridges, canals, aqueducts, and other public works throughout the empire Units were allowed to remain in permanent garrisons over long periods of time and so built very Roman towns along the very edge of the empire. This helped to romanize those peoples living far from the economic and cultural centers of the empire. Wherever it was sent, the Roman army provided local inhabitants an example of Romanitas, the sense of belonging to a great civilization Culture The Romans established Latin as the common and official language of the empire, but also adopted Greek culture and, in a form called Graeco-Roman, spread a common literature, architecture, art, etc., throughout the empire. Economy Uniform currency Uniform system of weights and measures

An economic balance was maintained between the wealthy and productive East and the relatively poor and backward West. The East was taxed heavily, and the money transferred to the West, which used the money to purchase goods from the East. Religion The Romans established a strict policy of religious toleration. They themselves freely adopted and adapted the gods and goddesses of the people they conquered, a process called syncretism They promoted a certain degree of commonality by establishing and promoting emperor worship, which acted much the same as patriotic rituals -- saluting the flag, the formulaic pledge of allegiance, standing when singing the national anthem, reverence for the cloth of the flag -- are intended to promote feelings on national unity among citizens. Intangibles Pax romana (Roman peace): The Romans brought an unprecedented degree of peace and security to the lands of their empire, and their citizens and subjects fully appreciated that these blessings were dependent on the continued unity of the empire. Romanitas (the sense of being roman) was a deeply-held sentiment and outlived the empire itself by a matter of centuries. But such institutions required attention and constant effort to maintain. A weakness in the Roman imperial system led to internal wars and civil strife that eventually made it impossible for the imperial government to support these institutions and policies as it once had. The Romans were unwilling to give up their reverence for Rome's long tradition of republican government even when such a form of government could no longer survive. Augustus Caesar converted the Republic into an empire in about14 BC by concentrating the major offices of the Republic in his own person and maintaining the fiction that he was preserving and maintaining the Republic. Under such a policy, he was unable to establish a stable system of imperial succession, and struggles for power eventually began to drain the empire of its strength.

Rome's greatness grew out of its imperial program of conquering others and establishing colonies. This military expansion at once brought great material benefit to the Roman state and guaranteed a pipeline of wealth for Rome, the imperial city. And Rome becomes a cosmopolitan capital where high-living and material wealth become synonymous with personal importance and success. Note how the Karanis exhibit displays extravagant wall paintings, which did not decorate the walls of churches or temples but rather the homes of wealthy citizens.

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