Topics: Robotics, Robot, Robots Pages: 21 (6726 words) Published: August 23, 2013

The Shadow robot hand system
Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, development and application of robots [1] and computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans, in dangerous or manufacturing processes, or simply just resemble humans. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. The concept in creation of machines that could operate autonomously dates back to classical times, but research into the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the 20th century.[2] Throughout history, robotics has been often seen to mimic human behavior, and often manage tasks in a similar fashion. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue, research, design, and building new robots serve various practical purposes, whether domestically, commercially, or militarily. Many robots do jobs that are hazardous to people such as defusing bombs, exploring shipwrecks, and mines. Contents  [hide]  * 1 Etymology * 2 Components * 2.1 Power source * 2.2 Actuation * 2.3 Sensing * 2.4 Manipulation * 2.5 Locomotion * 2.6 Environmental interaction and navigation * 2.7 Human-robot interaction * 3 Control * 3.1 Autonomy levels * 4 Robotics research * 4.1 Dynamics and kinematics * 5 Education and training * 5.1 Career training * 5.2 Certification * 5.3 Summer robotics camp * 5.4 Robotics afterschool programs * 6 Employment * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Bibliography * 10 Further reading * 11 External links| -------------------------------------------------

The word robotics was derived from the word robot, which was introduced to the public by Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), which premiered in 1921.[3]The word robot comes from the Slavic word robota, which is used to refer forced labor. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word robotics was first used in print by Isaac Asimov, in his science fiction short story "Liar!", published in May 1941 in Astounding Science Fiction. Asimov was unaware that he was coining the term; since the science and technology of electrical devices is electronics, he assumed robotics already referred to the science and technology of robots. In some of Asimov's other works, he states that the first use of the word robotics was in his short story Runaround (Astounding Science Fiction, March 1942).[4][5] However, the original publication of "Liar!" predates that of "Runaround" by five months, so the former is generally cited as the word's origin. The word robot was introduced to the public by the Czech writer Karel Čapek in his play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), published in 1920.[3] The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called robots creatures who can be mistaken for humans – though they are closer to the modern ideas of androids. Karel Čapek himself did not coin the word. He wrote a short letter in reference to an etymology in the Oxford English Dictionary in which he named his brother Josef Čapek as its actual originator.[3] In 1927 the Maschinenmensch ("machine-human") gynoid humanoid robot (also called "Parody", "Futura", "Robotrix", or the "Maria impersonator") was the first and perhaps the most memorable depiction of a robot ever to appear on film was played by German actress Brigitte Helm in Fritz Lang's film Metropolis. In 1942 the science fiction writer Isaac Asimov formulated his Three Laws of Robotics and, in the process of doing so, coined the word "robotics" (see details in "Etymology" section above). In 1948 Norbert Wiener formulated the principles of cybernetics, the basis of practical robotics....
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