Factors that motivate behaviour
* He believed that the personality has 3 parts: Id, ego and superego. * The Id, present at birth demands immediate satisfaction and is ruled by the pleasure principle. The id is the irrational, primitive part of personality. * The ego, which develops as a child interacts with the world, is the conscious, rational part. The ego must respond to the constraints of reality (governed by the reality principle), which brings inevitable conflicts with the id. * The superego, which develops during the phallic stage, creates further conflict with the id. * The ego has ego defence mechanisms to reduce the anxiety created by conflict. They are unconscious and explain the dynamics of many behaviours. RDDRPS Explanations should include
* Dream analysis
* Free association
* Freud’s views have changed the Western view of human nature. It led to recognition of the importance of early childhood experience on later behaviour and the importance of the unconscious mind. * Freud’s theory recognises that personality has more than one aspect. It allows for the fact that we can be rational and irrational and that we sometimes predict that we will act in one way but actually do something different. * Psychoanalysis has been helpful in therapy for some abnormal conditions. * Case studies provide in depth detail about a persons life. It is not reductionist as it embraces the complexity of behaviour, they relate to real life. * A number of Neo-Freudians have adopted Freud’s explanation incorporating more social rather than sexual influences.
* The theory lacks empirical support. It is based on a few case studies of abnormality (white Viennese women) and it is not possible to build a theory of...
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