In the summer of August 1887, Rizal decided to return to the Philippines for some months.
The circumstances during his time were favorable because many authorities at that time were liberally inclined. Both the Gran Oriente de España and Luz de Oriente was composed of Spaniards and Filipino masons.
Rizal’s priority was to cure his mother’s eyes, thus his first operation of being an ophthalmologist based from his experiences and studies, was very successful in removing a double cataract and restored Teodora’s vision.
He then provided a lot for the community by opening a gymnasium for them, shared his knowledge about European sports and taught them to the young folks, he even practiced as a physician during his stay in Calamba.
Then in the land troubles at Calamba he suggested to the tenants that they ask in the lawsuits that the landlords show their deeds. This he knew these would be unwilling to do because they were claiming more land than their deeds covered. Also he got the town to report the full amount of rents paid so that the landlords would have to pay taxes which before they had been escaping. The litigation had arisen from refusals to sign new and one-sided contracts, in which the Rizal family led the tenants.
For some time back Rizal's father had been in disfavor with the hacienda owners through denying to the manager a present of a turkey once when an epidemic had reduced his flock to only a few birds. He had been accustomed to make such gifts at the official's request so that individual became angry and raised the rent, doubling it. Again he doubled it when he found the first raise did not cause Francisco Rizal-Mercado to come begging forgiveness, but his tenant was not of the kind that looked out for self-interest when he considered himself in the right. He stood up for his rights and the courts justified his position. Legally he won but an abuse of authority by an unscrupulous governor general cost him his property. Yet he never seemed to regret his stand and never asked sympathy.
Governor General Terrero, who had given Rizal a lieutenant named Jose Taviel de Andrade of the Civil Guard as a bodyguard, found it difficult to protect him and, after six months, advised him to leave. In the interview the governor general spoke of having been interested in reading the extracts from "Noli Me Tangere" quoted by the censor in the petition for the book's prohibition, and requested a copy.
His betrothed, Leonor Rivera, whom he idealized in the "Maria Clara" of "Noli Me Tangere," through the withholding of Rizal's letters and by representations that he no longer thought of her, had been persuaded to marry a young English engineer.
The Second Homecoming
There were certain reasons as to why Jose Rizal would again return to his Fatherland. He decided to go home on
May 1892, with the following reasons:
1. to confer with Governor Despujol regarding his proposol on the Borneo colonization.
2. To establish the Liga Filipina in the Philippines. and
3. To prove to his detractors, particularly Eduardo de Lete, that the latter was wrong in accusing Rizal of cowardliness and unbravely characteristic. It was said that de Lete attacked that Rizal was comfortable and safe in Hong Kong that he already abandoned the country's cause.
As he arrived together with her sister Lucia in Manila, a series of events transpired. Among which are:
June 26,1892 -(Sunday at 12:00 noon)Rizal and his
sister Lucia arrived in Manila
-Afternoon at 4:00 o'clock he went to
Malacanang to seek audience with the Spanish Governor
General Eulogio Despujol, Conde de Caspe. He was told
to come back at that night at 7:00 o'clock. He
returned but told him to return on Wednesday (June
June 27 -at 6:00 p.m. Rizal boarded a train in Tutuban
Station to visited his friends in Malolos(Bulacan),
San Fernando (Pampanga), Tarlac(Tarlac), and
Bacolor(Pampanga). They discussed the problems
affecting their people and took the oppurtunity to
greet them personally.
June 28 -at 5 o'clock in the afternoonRizal returned
to Manila by train. He was shadowed by the government
spies who carefully his every movement. The homes he
had visited were seized by the Guardia Civil
June 29 -(Wednesday at 7:30) he saw his Excellency and
did not succeed to have the penalty of exile lifted.He
was to come again the following day at 7:30
June 30 -(thursday) they talked about the question of
Borneo and told Rizal to come back Sunday
July 3 -(Sunday) Rizal returned and talked about
sundry things. Thanked Governor General Despujol for
having lifted the exile of his sisters. asked him if
he would like to go abroad to Hong Kong and answered
yes. Told him to return on Wednesday
July 3, 1892 -(Sunday evening) Rizal attended a
meeting of the patriots at the home of the
Chinese-Filipino mastizo on Ylaya Street, Tondo,
Manila . RIzal explained the objectives of the Liga
Filipina, a civic league of the Filipinos. He
presented the Constitution of the Liga which he had
written in Hong Kong. The patriots were impressed and
approved the establishment of The Liga
July 6 -(Wednesday) Rizal went to Malacanang to resume
his series of interviews with governor general. The
governor general showed hom some printed leaflets
were entitled Pobres Frailes(Poor Friars). Rizal
denied having those leaflets. Despite his denial and
insistent demand for investigation. He was placed
under arrest and escorted to Fort Santiago by Ramon
Despujol the nephew and aide of Governor General.
July 7 -the Gaceta de Manila publishedthe story of
-the same issue the gubernatorial decree gave
him the reasonsfor Rizal's deportation.
July 15, 1892 -(12:30a.m.)Rizal was brought under
heavy guard to the streamer Cebu which was sailing to
-(1:00 a.m.) the streamer under CAptain
Delgras departed sailing south, passing Mindoro and
July 17, 1892 -reached Dapitan at 7:00 in the evening.
Captain Delgras handed Rizal over to Captain Ricardo
Carnicero, Spanish commandant of Dapitan
-the same night, Rizal began his exile in
Dapitan which would last until July 31, 1896, a period
of four years.
After his exile in Dapitan, he would have one more hurrah at traveling abroad.
On September 3, 1896, Rizal left for Spain from Manila.
Final Homecoming (Trial)
Rizal's homecoming in 1896 was the last and the saddest return to his native land. He knew he was facing a great deal of adversary. He well knew that he is in big trouble, which could also mean that his head was at stake. But through it all, he was still gladly accepting the fact becuase he knew that he was doing this for his beloved country.
Rizal would keep a diary, which would later be confiscated and used as evidences against Rizal, but to no avail. His arrival in Manila on a steamboat Colon, was greeted by the spaniards with glee, for it was time for reinforcing their militarymen. It also marked the trial of Jose Rizal.
Rizal was subjected to a five-day grueling investigation. He was presented with both testimonial and documentary evidences. First, the trial was presided by Colonel Francisco Olive. Results of the preliminary investigation was forwarded to Governor General Ramon Blanco. Rizal was allowed to choose his defender. Although he only had a limited list to choose from, he chose a man that has a familiar thing with him. Luis Taviel de Andrade was chosen by Rizal to be his lawyer. He chose Luis because of the simliaraity of names between his then bodyguard Jose Taviel de Andrade. True enough, Luis and Jose were brothers.
Whileat his prison cell at Fort Santiago, there was a battle outside of the courst. Rizal, being a man of peace and calmness, wrote a Manifesto to his people appealing to stop the unneccessary bloodshed. It hasn't been distributed because of the intervention of Governor General Polavieja.
Luis Taviel de Andrade tried everything in his power to defend Rizal, but to no avail. Polvieja signed the document ordering the execution of Rizal. This would go down as one of the important person of history because of his infamous deed. This would lead to Rizal's last march to Bagumbayan.
In Hong Kong and Macao
Hounded by powerful enemies, Rizal was forced to leave his country for a second time in February 1888. He was then a full- grown man of 27 years of age, a practicing physician, and a recognized man-of-letters. The first time he went aboard in June 1882, he was a mere lad of 21, a youthful student in search of wisdom in the Old World, a romantic idealist with beautiful dreams of emancipating his people from bondage by the magic power of his pen. Times had changed. Rizal at 27 was an embittered victim of human iniquities, a disillusioned dreamer, a flustrated reformer.
The Trip to Hong Kong. On February 3, 1888, after a short stay of six months in his beloved Calamba, Rizal left Manila for Hong Kong on board the Zafiro. He was sick and sad during the crossing of the choppy China Sea. He did not get off his ship when it made brief stopover at Amoy on February 7. for three reasons: (1) he was not feeling well, (2) it was raining hard, and (3) he heard that the city was dirty. He arrived in Hong Kong on February 8.
During his stay in Hong Kong, a British colony, Rizal wrote a letter to Blumentritt, dated February 16, 1888, expressing his bitterness.
In Hong Kong, Rizal stayed at Victoria Hotel. He was welcomed by the Filipino residents, including Jose Maria Basa, Balbino Mauricio, and Manuel Yriarte, (son of Francisco Yriarte, alcalde mayor of Laguna).
A Spaniard, Jose Sainz de Varanda, who was a former secretary of Governor General Terrero, shadowed Rizal’s movement in Hong Kong. It is believed that he was commissioned by the Spanish authorities to spy on Rizal.
Hong Kong, wrote Rizal to Blumentritt on February 16, 1888, is a small, but very clean city. Many Portuguese, Hindus, English, Chinese, and Jews live in it. There are some Filipinos, the majority of whom being those who had been exiled to the Marianas Islands in 1872. They are poor, gentle, and timid. Formerly they were rich mechanics,. Chapter 14
When Rizal Left New York for London
From May 13-16, 1888, Dr. Jose P. Rizal stayed at the Fifth Avenue Hotel. It was one of the best hotels in New York City at the time and the building is now the location of the International Pencil Factory located at the Madison Park (incidentally where the Filipino Independence Day festival is held every year.)
On May 16th, Jose Rizal gathered enough funds for a trip to London onboard the luxurious liner CITY OF ROME. The Statue of Liberty was only 2 years old when the ship departed the New York harbor.
“There is a certain 'poetic justice' in the fact that the ship that Rizal traveled on was also the same ship that carried defeated Spanish troops back to Spain.”
The Barrow Shipbuilding Co. built the second largest steamer in 1881. She was a 8415 gross ton vessel - length 560.2ft beam 52.3ft, clipper stem, three funnels, four masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 271-1st, 250-2nd and 810-3rd class passengers. In September 1898 she was used to repatriate 1690 Spanish troops from Portsmouth, USA to Santander, Spain after the Spanish - American war. She was considered by many to be the most beautiful steamer ever built. There is a certain 'poetic justice' in the fact that the ship that Rizal traveled on was also the same ship that carried defeated Spanish troops back to Spain. I think that Rizal would have appreciated that. (noted by Ian Rogers, Hong Kong, China.)
Another irony was that Rizal might have boarded the ship again in September 1898, because he was accepted as a volunteer physician to work with the Spanish army in Cuba. Instead he was brought back to Manila in 1896 for his trial. He was sentenced to death by firing squad on Dec 30.
May 24, 1888 -- Arrived in Liverpool
He enjoyed himself aboard the CITY of ROME, then the second largest ship making the transatlantic crossing, by showing off his prowess with the yo-yo. He landed at Liverpool on the 24th of May 1888 and went on to London, where he eventually settled down at No.37 Chalcot, Crescent, part of what the English call a terrace or row of adjoining houses in a quiet street off Regent's Park, as a lodger with the Beckett family.
He wrote to Bluementritt (from London)
I live here with an English family who esteem me. I don't believe that its esteem is due to the two pounds weekly. That would be humiliating for your friend Rizal and would be ill-considered. At times when I receive news from Spain, it seems to me that I ought to hate all Europeans, but then I believe I shall go to Austria to live there if I cannot live in the Philippines, because Austria has no colonies and for being an Austrian he who has done so much for my country and loves her greatly.
It is interesting to note that Maria Clara who we associate our woman and Rizal's early sweetheart was Leonor Rivera who broke his heart when she married an English engineer who was working on the first Filipino railway. Rizal in his early letters to his friend Bluementritt wrote from Manila, "The first hammer-blow in the railway has fallen on me!"
He had political explanation; "I do not blame her for preferring Kipping..an Englishman is a free man and I am not."
Rizal to his family, 13th June 1888 (from London)
I am not in a bad place. I have two rooms, a bedroom, small and cozy, and another room where I can study, write and receive visitors. The family is made up of man and wife, four daughters and two sons; the daughters are called Gertrude (Tottie), Blance (Sissie), Flory and Grace. The first two are young ladies and have their sweethearts, Tottie sings rather well; Sissie accompanies her on the piano. One of the two sons is employed; the other signs in a church choir. Board and lodging cost me at least $45. Everything is more expensive in England than in other parts of Europe.
He was very fun of Tottie according to other books written, but I was able to get this info from the 1881 UK census. I was excited so I will post it here just to say that the girls of Rizal were real.
Here is the BECKETT family in 1881 (7 years earlier)
Dwelling: 37 Chalcot Cres
Census Place: St Pancras, London, Middlesex, England
Source: FHL Film 1341040 PRO Ref RG11 Piece 0183 Folio 15 Page 23 He stayed in an affluent place in London and that was probably the reason that there are no jokers among us who could connect him to the most vicious crime of the century that started few days after he arrived. The killing stopped after he left for continental Europe in the beginning of 1889. Jack the Ripper's victims were found in the East End, the poor gut section of London badly cut with precision that could only attributed to some one who has medical training. Eyewitnesses claim that Jack wore a dark overcoat, but again JR had a small frame that his shadow would stand short. It was the first known serial killer that remained unsolved.