rituals and festivals

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Rituals and festivals have been a part of traditional European life for many years. They involved all religions, social classes and happened in almost all areas throughout Europe. Back in these times, there were no forms of entertainment like television, cell phones and video games. People depended on one another to entertain themselves. People in Europe would also be punished or tortured in front of the whole town to control public outbursts. An example of this is known as charivari. Some of these festivals and rituals were for political purposes too. Festivals and rituals of traditional European society mainly served as enjoyment, enforcement of public rules, and political purposes in daily life.
Festivals and rituals were a type of fun and entertainment for Europeans. In a painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, it shows a picture of Europeans at a carnival, enjoying the days before Lent. Usually the days before lent people indulge themselves with alcohol. In the painting, it shows a man wearing a robe with a bucket as a crown of thorns and a stick as his cane. Jesus Christ is being mocked by representing the violence of Lent. This shows that the people are just enjoying the carnival because they are mocking their ruler (Wikipedia). The picture also shows people running around with drinks and food and also playing games with each other (Doc. 3). In a document by R. Lassels, a French traveler, he comments on Italian Carnival customs. He states “All this festival activity is allowed the Italians that they may give a little vent to their spirits, which have been stifled for a whole year and are ready to choke with gravity and melancholy” (Doc. 5). Since Lassels is from France, it means he really does not know Italians. So the fact that he said that the Italians really enjoy festivals is true because he could tell when he saw them at the carnival since he does not really know them (POV). In a comment made by Baltasar Rusow, a Lutheran pastor, he talks about the

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