Describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to skin breakdown and the development of pressure sores? 1.
The skin protects the body and controls the temperature, the tough outer layer is called the epidermis and is germ proof and water proof and the inner layer the dermis is full of nerve endings, which sends messages to the brain about heat, cold and pain. Pressure sores develop because of long standing pressure onto a particular area of the body causing breakdown of the layer of the skin due to diminished blood supply.
Where the pressure sites?
- Inner knees
-Sacrum area and buttocks
-Bony areas on your spine
-Any bony prominences
What might put an individual at risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores? -Poor basic nursing care (hygiene, not being turned hourly)
Describe how incorrect handling and moving techniques can damage the skin? Not being gentle with clients and if you don’t use the correct moving techniques by moving a client the skin can sheer and damage the underlying skin which then can cause pressure sores. Putting too much pressure on certain areas can cause severe bruising to the skin.
What could reduce the risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores? - Frequent turning of bed bound clients
- Frequent moving of clients that are immobile.
-Good hygiene and basic care
-Use of barrier creams
-Correct handling, moving techniques and use of equipment
What changes to an individual’s skin conditions should be reported? -Redness
What legislation, policies and procedures affecting pressure area care? The Health and Safety Act with COSHH and Manual Handling Regulations, the Human Rights Act, the Health and Social Care Act) and the Essential Standards, the Mental Capacity Act, the Disability Discrimination Act, the Race Relations Act. Describe agreed ways of working relating to pressure area care? Make sure that the care plans for every individual are up to date, and that for every individual it holds information about any pressure area care they have had or are currently having such as pressure mattresses and cushions etc and if they are bed bound and being turned regularly and make sure that all staff fill in the pressure area moving and positioning charts when needed. Make sure all staff are informed in the handover of any change in clients pressure areas such as redness, discolouration and breakage of skin. And also make sure that staff are recording any signs of pressure sores onto the individuals body charts which are in the care plans of the individuals. In the event of a pressure sore developing be sure to inform a district nurse for them to assess and give treatment where appropriate. Describe why team working is important in relation to providing pressure area care? Team work is important to ensure that every client gets the appropriate pressure area care, and when moving and positioning (turning) an individual there has to be another member of staff with you to carry out the pressure area care with safety. Ensure the appropriate equipment is used. All the team should be informed of any changes in the client’s condition and pressure area care and this should then be handed over to night staff etc. 3.
Describe why it is important to follow the agreed care plan? It is important to follow the agreed care plan because that’s the plan that both the individual and the individuals family has produced. It’s the way in which the individual wants to be cared for and holds very important and confidential information about the individual. If you don’t read the care plan before attending to the individuals needs you could affect their health and day to day living. For example: A client may have a very serious allergy to nuts and because you haven’t read their care plan or followed what the care plan says about the individual you have...
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