Rise of Industrial America

Topics: Eugene V. Debs, Trade union, Pullman Strike Pages: 5 (1671 words) Published: June 23, 2013
Businesses benefited from friendly government policies that protected private property, subsidized railroads with land grants and loans, supported US manufacturers with protective tariffs, and refrained from either regulating business operations or heavily taxing corporate profits. •Government policies gave 170 million acres of land to railroad companies for expansion of business. •Land grants and cash loans made poor construction and increased corruption in government. •Since the 19th century had a lot of cheap labor, worker strikes were prominent and were also easily put down by other scabs who were desperate for work. Strikes involved quitting jobs rather than violence. •Employers used many tactics for defending unions such as the lockout, blacklists, yellow-dog contracts, e.t.c. •Labor was often divided on the best methods to fighting management. •Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was during an economic depression, when the railroad companies cut wages in order to reduce costs and this strike spread to 11 states creating a national strike made of 500,000 people. •National Labor Union (1866) was the first attempt to organize all workers in all states – both skilled and unskilled, both agricultural and industrial workers. NLU also had many reforms such as the 8-hour work day. •Knights of Labor (1869) was a 2nd national labor union which began as a secret society in order to avoid detection by employers and went into public in 1881 and lost popularity/membership in 1886 due to bombing. •Reforms of Powderly 1. Abolition of child labor 2. Make each man his own employer 3. Abolition of monopolies and trusts. •Haymarket bombing (1866) was an event where knights were gathered in Haymarket Square for a general strike to achieve an 8-hour day and as police attempted to stop them, a bomb was thrown killing 7 police men and this led to the loss of popularity and membership of KOL as more people were against it. •American Federation of Labor (1886) was formed to attain the practical economic goals (see Samuel Gompers). •Pullman Strike and American Socialist Party (see Eugene V. Debs) Economic:

Technological innovations and industrial achievements provided great economic efficiency for the industry. •Rise of Capitalism and free-market economy.
Railroads created a market for goods that was national in scale and many other complex structures in finance. •A financial panic in 1893 forced a quarter of all railroads into bankruptcy. •Great Lakes region emerged as the leading steel producer. •Vertical Integration – means by which a company would control every stage of the industrial process, from mining the raw materials to transporting the finished product. •JP Morgan controlled the US Steel Corporation which was the first billion-$ company and also the largest enterprise in the world, employing 168,000 people and controlling over 3/5’s of the nation’s steel business. •Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Trust controlled 90% of oil refineries and was a huge oil success - $900 million. •Horizontal Integration – means by which former competitors were brought under a single corporate umbrella. •Social Darwinism concluded that the wealth must be in the hands of the “fit” for the future of the human race. •By 1890s, the richest 10% of the US population controlled 9/10s of the nation’s wealth. Religion:

Different immigrants from various cultures were a part of the American industrial success. •Laissez Faire Capitalism proved that government won’t be involved in economic, scientific, and religious beliefs. •Rockefeller concluded that Protestant work ethic (that hard work and material success are signs of God’s favor) to both his business and personal life by saying “God gave me my riches.” •Andrew Carnegie’s article “Wealth” argued that the wealth had a God-given responsibility to carry out projects of civic philanthropy for the benefit of the society. Social:

Railroads affected daily life ex....
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