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Rise of Filipino Nationalism

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Topics: Philippines
Filipino nationalism began with an upsurge of patriotic sentiments and nationalistic ideals in the 1800s Philippines that came as a consequence of more than three centuries of Spanish rule. This served as the backbone of the first nationalist revolution in Asia, the Philippine Revolution of 1896,[1] and continues up to this day. These nationalistic sentiments have led to a wide-ranging campaign for political, social, and economical freedom in the Philippines.

Background
In the years before the 11th century, the Philippines was divided into numerous principalities known as barangays, a name derived from Malayan boats called balangays. These small political units were ruled by datus, rajahs or sultans.[2] In 1565, European colonization began in earnest when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. Beginning with just five ships and five hundred men accompanied by Augustinian monks, and further strengthened in 1567 by two hundred soldiers, he was able to repel competing Portuguese colonizers and to create the foundations for the Spanish colonization of the Archipelago. In 1571, the Spanish occupied the kingdoms of Maynila and Tondo and established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies.[3][4] This Spanish colonization united the Philippine archipelago into a single political entity.

The rise of Filipino nationalism began in the 1800s. It was brought about by the love of Filipinos to their country. They fought the three centuries of Spanish rule of the land.

Factors that gave rise to the Filipino Nationalism

1. Spread of liberalism
*“Laissez-faire or let alone policy” – it gave full freedom to private individuals and firms to engage ineconomic activities without much interference from thegovernment.

2. Sentiment against the principales
*Principales – the political or social aristocracy , whichincludes the prominent land-owning and propertied citizens.

3. Racial prejudice

4. Cultural changes
*Educational reforms of 1863
*Gave birth to a new breed of Filipinos- the ilustrados

*Carlos Maria De la Torre – governorgeneral who showed liberal dispositionin administering the government by:

1. Abolishing the censorship of the press
2. Abolishing the flogging as a punishment
3. Solving the agrarian unrest in Cavite
4. Secularizaion Controversy.

*Council of Trent- affirmed that regular priests be appointed to administer the parishes in the colony.

*Exponi Nobis- allowed the regular clergy to serve as paris priests without diocesan authorization and be exempted from bishops’s authority.

6.Cavite Mutiny (January 20,1872)
*Cause: revocatuion of the privilege of ship yard workers to be exempted from forced labor and paying tribute.

*Rafael de izquierdo- replaced Gov. Dela Torre and promptly discarded the liberal measures.

*Lamadrid- leader of the mutiny.

*Fathers Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez, Jacinto Zamora (GOMBURZA) - accused of alleged conspiracy in rebellion and was sentenced to death by garrote in Bagumbayan field on February 17,1872.

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