When an author wants to persuade an audience, he or she will utilize rhetorical strategies. Rhetorical strategies mainly consist of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. Ethos is the author's use of their own credibility, Pathos makes an appeal to emotions, and Logos appeals to reason and logic. Authors may also use strategies such as word choice, imagery, and metaphors. Likewise, In Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning, Michael Dillingham uses effective rhetorical strategies, such as ethos, pathos, and logos to persuade his audience against the use of steroids. Dillingham uses effective strategies such as questions, word choice, similes, etc. to enforce his argument. Dillingham begins his argument with a rhetorical question that completely leans toward his point of view, which is steroids are ethically wrong. He asks, "Why, ethically, does the use of steroids in sports bother us" (635). By using pathos in this question, the audience must question from the opposing point of view of steroids. Therefore, whether the audience is for or against steroids, the question makes the audience think from the opposing point of view of steroids. Dillingham also uses strong language and word choice. He uses words that have negative connotative and denotative meaning towards the use of steroids. Negative words such as cancer, emotional problems, and physical problems push the audience away from steroids, which also makes this strategy pathos (635). Moreover, the author uses imagery and similes that people can relate to, and he supports them by using the word "we." An example is used in paragraph six where Dillingham uses the simile that "we" tolerate people using steroids just as "we" tolerate people beating each other's brains out in boxing (635). By using the word "we," the author appeals to the audience's emotions, which is pathos. This example is significant because it makes his point seem like everyone agrees with him. Dillingham continues to attack the...
Cited: Dillingham, Michael. "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning." Published online by
Santa Clara University (2004). Rpt. in Writing Arguments: A Rhetoric with
Readings. Ed. John D. Ramage, John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 7th ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. 635-636.
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