1. Narration - Recounts a personal experience or tells a story based on a real or
fictional circumstance. All details come together in an integrated way to create
some central them or impression.
2. Point of view - The person or entity through whom the reader experiences the story.
(Does not refer to the author's/character's feelings, opinions, perspectives, etc.)
e.g. - Third-person, first-person
3. Exposition - The kind of writing that is intended primarily to present information 4. Description - Any careful detailing of an object, place, or person
5. Cause and Effect - Two events are related as cause and effect when one event brings
about or causes the other. The event that happens first is the cause; the one that
follows is the effect.
6. Argument - A form of discourse in which reason is used to influence or change
people's ideas or actions.
7. Persuasion - Attempts to convince the reader that a point of view is valid or persuade
the reader to take a specific action.
8. Ethos - Refers to the credibility/reputation of the writer; often conveyed through
tone/style. Often called "Ethical appeal" or the "Appeal from credibility."
e.g. - An author's expertise in a specific field or previous records
9. Pathos - Emotional appeal used to persuade the reader.
10. Logos - Refers to the logic of a message, and the effectiveness of its supporting
e.g. - Business reports. "Logical appeal"
11. a.) Compare - Identifying similarities.
b.) Contrast - Identifying differences.
12. Tone - The author's attitude towards the subject.
13. Mood - Emotions the reader feels while reading a literary work.
14. Syntax - The way in which words are put together to form sentences or phrases.
e.g. - Grammar, sentence structure
15. Diction - The writer's distinctive choice of vocabulary, and style of expression
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