The article “The effects of private tutoring and parenting behaviors on children’s academic achievement in Korea: Are there differences between low- and high-income groups?” is a study conducted by Bong Joo Lee, Hyun Suk Jwa, and Se Hee Lim. The article examines the differences in parenting behaviors and private tutoring between high and low income families. The authors’ make an argument against the common belief “that family income is positively related to academic achievement through the investment in private tutoring in Korea” (Bong Joo Lee, et al. 164), as well as supporting the idea that parental involvement makes a greater impact on the academic achievements of their children. They give many great examples throughout the article to support their case by the use of academic studies as well as the use of their own research, data, charts, and tables to support their overall claim.
The authors’ state that other studies done on this subject provide inconsistent results due to a lack of control on many other contributing factors. A child’s academic achievement can’t be solely based on the effect of private tutoring alone, but also on the amount of income a family receives and the amount of support the parents give their children. They then pointed out that some studies showed that private tutoring “had a statistically significant effect on academic performance of children (Chung, 2011; Hanushek, 1989; M. S. Kim & Kim, 2010; E. W. Lee, 2006),” while other reports from “Ban, Chung, and Yang (2005) report no effect of private tutoring on academic achievement.” The inconsistent results of empirical studies suggest that there is a complex relationship between a family’s socio-economic factors, expenses for private tutoring, and children’s academic achievement (Bong Joo Lee, et al. 165). These claims effectively support the overall argument against Korea’s traditional belief relating academic achievement to the amount of private tutoring a child receives.
While private tutoring is considered a material investment by parents, the behaviors of the parent’s themselves can greatly impact the educational outcome of their children. Studies have shown that positive parenting behaviors, like openness in conversation and involvement in their child’s educational progress, can greatly improve their child’s academic achievement (Bong Joo Lee, et al. 166). Neglectful parenting behaviors, “however, tend to be related to lower levels of academic performance (Chung, 2011; B. J. Lee, Kim, & Kim, 2010; Mayer, 1997).” Other studies have also supported this claim, “finding that parents with higher incomes display more positive parenting behaviors (J. H. Lee & Kim, 2007; Mayer, 1997; Shin, 2004).” The author’s citation of other studies supports the idea of parental behaviors in relation to the child’s educational outcome. Comparing the authors’ claim to the research conducted by others, the studies have received consistent results and therefore creating a base of credibility for the audience. Research has shown that parents with a higher level of education can create an environment more suitable for academic success than those with less education (Bong Joo Lee, et al. 166). They support their claim by comparing it to the same claim in similar studies, not only that, but they are able to replicate the same data in the article. This gave the reader a visual aid to help better understand the conclusion of their article. With the charts provided throughout the article the audience can see the extensive research done by the authors to prove their point. Gathering data from multiple sources, the authors’ were able to provide a trustworthy accumulation of information. Using the Korean Welfare Panel Study (KWPS), a nationwide survey of a representative sample of the Korean population, they are able to view a wide range of families’ socio-economic characteristics (The Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs & Seoul National University, 2009). Comparing the expenditures on private tutoring, middle school students’ academic achievement, and behaviors of their parents, the survey gives a great amount of information to base the study off of. But with the only collectible data being from KWPS, the data isn’t completely reliable because there was no other study to base it off of. Following the literary comparisons of the authors’ claims to other studies, the research done by Lee, Jwa, and Lim can be seen visually by the audience through a number of charts and tables. Examining the differences in key variables, the authors’ are able to perform multi-group comparisons using structural equation modeling (Bong Joo Lee, et al. 169). This then leads into an explanation of their method, from what variables they controlled and what tests they’ve used to achieve their results. The data shown in their results effectively supports their overall conclusion that a child’s academic achievement shouldn’t be solely based off of their parents’ income, but rather, that the study should include as many controlled factors in order to achieve the most accurate results. While all of the information provided has been strictly scrutinized, it’s inevitable to say that the study has its limitations. “Any analysis using observational data faces a possibility of model misspecification (Bong Joo Lee, et al. 175).” By the authors’ mentioning these limitations and accepting that their data isn’t perfect, the audience can see the overall objective is to inform the reader. They are not trying to seek approval of the audience by use of emotional appeal but they gain the reader’s attention through logic and reason.
Throughout this article the authors used a strong appeal of logos to support their claims. The lack in use of ethos and pathos gave the article more credibility by using facts and data to support their argument. The tone of the article was very formal, it created a professional image of the authors. Although the research wasn’t perfect, their acknowledgement of this gave them the upper-hand. This made the experience more believable and appealing to the audience, supporting the authors’ overall conclusion.
Bong Joo Lee, Hyun Suk, Jwa, Se Hee Lim.”The effects of private tutoring and parenting behaviors on children’s academic achievement in Korea: Are there differences between low- and high-income groups?” KEDI Journal of Educational Policy. 11.2 (2014): 163-178. Print.