Topics: RFID, Modulation, Electromagnetic radiation Pages: 18 (5186 words) Published: April 9, 2013
RFID Technology

Overview, Mechanism, Applications and Limitations
Manoj Chaudhari
Electronics and Telecommunication
Terna Engineering College
Nerul, India

Anusha Shetty
Electronics and Telecommunication
Terna Engineering College
Nerul, India

Pravandu Panchal
Electronics and Telecommunication
Terna Engineering College
Nerul, India

Abstract— Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a convenient and popular concept to qualify a technology with many facets. RFID is one of the most exciting technologies that revolutionize the working practices by increasing efficiencies and improving profitability. The deployment of RFID in a large number of application areas is promising. In recent years, radio frequency identification technology has moved from obscurity into mainstream applications that help speed the handling of manufactured goods and materials. RFID technology provides a more granular visibility for industrial assets and inventory thereby offering a strategic advantage to the business. This paper introduces the basic mechanism of RFID technology, effectively addressing security and privacy issues in the short term. Finally, we discuss several challenges and obstacles to RFID adoption, as well as emerging technologies relevant to RFID.

Keywords- RFID principles; mechanism; advantages; limitations; applications; Auto ID


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) was first developed during World War II in order to distinguish between friend and enemy aircraft. Although the foundation of RFID technology was laid by past generations, only recent advances opened an expanding application range to its practical implementation. RFID is one of numerous technologies grouped under the term Automatic Identification (Auto ID), such as bar code, magnetic inks, optical character recognition, voice recognition, touch memory, smart cards, biometrics etc. Auto ID technologies are a new way of controlling information and material flow, especially suitable for large production networks.

The RFID technology is a means of gathering data about a certain item without the need of touching or seeing the data carrier, through the use of inductive coupling or electromagnetic waves. Bar code technology uses light as the transmission media, while RFID systems use radio waves. A technology that is mature enough to be mass-marketed at competitive cost and become a critical player in the global market.


The basic function of an RFID system is to automatically retrieve the information that has been previously inserted into specific integrated circuits. The data carrier is a microchip attached to an antenna (together called transponder or tag), the latter enabling the chip to transmit information to a reader (or transceiver) within a given range, which can forward the information to a host computer. The middleware (software for reading and writing tags) and the tag can be enhanced by data encryption for security-critical application at an extra cost, and anti-collision algorithms may be implemented for the tags if several of them are to be read simultaneously.

The most important differentiation criteria for RFID systems are the operating frequency of the reader, the physical coupling method and the range of the system. RFID systems are operated at widely differing frequencies, ranging from 135 kHz longwave to 5.8 GHz in the microwave range. Electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields are used for the physical coupling. Finally, the achievable range of the system varies from a few millimeters to above 15 m.

Figure 1. Block Diagram of RFID


Transponders contain RAM, ROM, EEPROM* or FRAM* and an HF interface to provide the power supply and permit communication with the reader.

Figure 2. Block diagram of an RFID data carrier

1 The HF Interface...

References: Laran RFID – white paper (January 2004).
Simpson Garfinkel- Understanding Rfid Technology( June 2005).
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