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Topics: Oxygen, Methane, Carbon Pages: 27 (1928 words) Published: December 3, 2013
Organic Chemistry - Introduction

1

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Basic definitions for organic chemistry
Scope

Organic chemistry is a vast subject so it is easier to split it into small sections for study. This is usually done by studying compounds which behave in a similar way because they have a particular atom, or group of atoms, (FUNCTIONAL GROUP) in their structure.

Catenation

The ability to form bonds between atoms of the same element. Carbon catenates to form chains and rings, with single, double and/or triple covalent bonds.

Q.1



Why does carbon form so many catenated compounds ?

• Why does silicon undergo catenation to a lesser extent than carbon ?

Homologous
Series
A series of compounds of similar structure in which each member differs from the next by a common repeating unit, CH2 . The members of the series are called homologues. •






Functional
Groups

All share the same general formula.
Formula of a homologue differs from its neighbour by CH2. (e.g. CH4, C2H6, . . . etc ) Contain the same functional group(s).
Have similar chemical properties.
Show a gradual change in physical properties as molar mass increases. Can usually be prepared by similar methods.

• Can consist of one atom, a group of atoms or multiple bonds between carbon atoms.

• Each functional group has its own distinctive properties which means that the properties of a compound are governed by the functional group(s) in it. H
H

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

carbon skeleton

Q.2

H
H

OH

H

H

H

H

C

C

C

C

C

H

H

H

H

H

carbon skeleton

functional
group

NH 2
functional
group

The following list contains some molecular formulae. Draw out as many legitimate structures for each and classify each compound made according to the functional group present. Remember that carbon atoms will have four covalent bonds surrounding them, oxygen atoms will have two, nitrogen atoms three and hydrogen atoms and halogen atoms just one. C2H6

C4H10

C4H8

C2H6O

C3H6O

C2H7N

C2H4O2

C2H3N

2

Organic Chemistry - Introduction

2812

Some common functional groups
GROUP

ENDING

GEN. FORMULA / STRUCTURE

ALKANE

- ane

RH

ALKENE

- ene

ALKYNE

- yne

HALOALKANE

halo -

RX

ALCOHOL

- ol

ROH

ALDEHYDE

-al

RCHO

KETONE

- one

RCOR

EXAMPLE

C

C

C2H6

ethane

C

C

C2H4

ethene

C

C

C2H2

ethyne

C − Cl

C2H5Cl

chloroethane

O H

C2H5OH

ethanol

CH3CHO

ethanal

CH3COCH3

propanone

CH3COOH

ethanoic acid

CH3COCl

ethanoyl chloride

CH3CONH2

ethanamide

CH3COOCH3

methyl ethanoate

CH3CN

ethanenitrile

H
C
O
C
C O
C
O H

CARBOXYLIC
ACID

- oic acid

RCOOH

C
O

Cl

ACYL
CHLORIDE

AMIDE

- oyl chloride

- amide

RCOCl

RCONH2

C
O

NH2

C

O

ESTER

- yl - oate

RCOOR

O R
C
O

NITRILE

- nitrile

RCN

C

AMINE

- amine

RNH2

C − NH2

CH3NH2

methylamine

NITRO

- nitro

RNO2

+ O
N
O

CH3NO2
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